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T h e R o c k C y c l e i n Mi c h i g a n. Geological and Land Management Division. DEQ GLMD - Rock Cycle in Michigan February 2003. What is t h e R o c k C y c l e ?. The R o c k C y c l e explains how Rocks and Natural Processes are related. weathering. Sedimentary. Metamorphic.

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T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

TheRockCycle in Michigan

Geological and Land Management Division

DEQ GLMD - Rock Cycle in Michigan February 2003


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

What is theRockCycle ?


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

The Rock Cycle explains how Rocks and Natural Processesare related

weathering

Sedimentary

Metamorphic

pressure, heat

melting

Igneous


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

A more traditional definition is:

RockCycle

is a sequence of events involving the formation, alteration, destruction, and reformation of rocks as a result of natural processes ...

Glossary of Geology, Bates & Jackson, AGI


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Wewill use the graphic seen in the background to helprepresent theRock Cycle.

There are many ways to show the various relationships between the rocks and the related natural processes.


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Before we look at theRock Cyclein detail,

let’s review some basic information …


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

TheRock Cycleinvolves the recognition of three main classes of rocks. All three types are found in Michigan.

The three rock types are …


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

SedimentaryRocks

MetamorphicRocks

CEMETERY

METABOLIC

INGENIOUS

IgneousRocks

Right?


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

The eminent 18th century lawyer, doctor, gentleman farmerand founder of modern geoscience,James Hutton,developed the concept of theRock Cycleto show how rocksand natural, physical processes are interrelated.


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

The understanding of the world in the 18th century was different from today …


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Hutton knew about solar energy and gravity at the surface. He did not know about radioactiveheating from inside the earth.

Solar energy, gravity and radioactive heating are the major forces driving the Rock Cycle.

As a result, the Rock Cyclewill be self-sustaining for thousands of millions of years.


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

How does an antique concept like the Rock Cycle hold up in light of contemporary data and scientific thinking?


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Of special interest is Plate Tectonics.


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

The mantle, crust and surface of the earthcan be thought of as a giant recycling machine;

rocks are neither created nor destroyed, but redistributed and transformed from one rock type to another.

S

M

I


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

If you were to ask a geologist what the earth is …

What do you think theresponse would be?


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Diagram of the Interior of the Earth

Crust0 to 40 km0°C

Upper Mantle40 to 670 km1,000°C

Lower Mantle670 to 2,890 km2,000°C

Outer Core2,890 to 5,150 km3,700°C

Inner Core5,150 to 6,370 km4,300°C


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Now that we better understand the largest components of Geology …

lets move to some of the smallest components of Geology …


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Atomsmake upelements.

There is a hierarchy to the elements of Geology

Elementscombine to form the naturalcompounds.

Naturalcompoundsandelementscombineto formminerals.

.

Mineralsmake uprocks.

Rocksmake up theEarth.


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Atomic Theory proposes that all matter is composed of the atoms of about 100 different chemical elements. It further proposes that chemical compounds are formed by the combination of the atoms of different chemical elements.

Elements can be arranged, based on their identifiable properties, into the Periodic Table


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

O

Na

Mg

Al

Si

K

Ca

Fe

Only eight elements make up over 98%of the earth’s crust!


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Atomsmake upelements.

There is a hierarchy to the elements of Geology

Elementscombine to form the naturalcompounds.

Naturalcompoundsandelementscombineto formminerals.

.

Mineralsmake uprocks.

What areMinerals? How can we tell what they are?

Rocksmake up theEarth.


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

The identifiable characteristics of Mineralsare

naturally occurring inorganic elements or compounds

having an orderly internal structure

and a characteristic chemical composition,

crystal form and

physical properties of a solid


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

alunite, amethyst, amphibole, analcite, anatase, andalusite, andesine, andradite, anglesite, anhydrite, ankerite, annabergite, anorthite, anthonyite, anthophyllite, anthraconite, anthraxolite, antigorite, apatite, aphrosiderite, apophyllite, aragonite, ardennite, argentoalgodonite, arsenopyrite, asbestos, atacamite, attapulgite, augite,awarurite, axinite, azurite, babingtonite, baddeleyite, barite, bassetite, bastnaesite, beaconite, beryl, biotite, bismuthinite, blomstrandine, bornite, bowlingite, brannerite, braunite, brochantite, bronzite, brookite, brucite, brunsvigite, buttgenbachite, byssolite, bytownite, calciovolborthite, calcite, calderite, calumetite, carnallite, carnelian, celadonite, celestite, cerargyrite, chabazite, chalcedony, chalcocite, chalconatronite, chalcopyrite, chalcotrichite, chamosite, chert, chloanthite, chlorargyrite, chlorastrolite, chlorite, clinochlore, clino-chrysotile, clinozoisite, collophane, columbite, copiapite, copper, coquimbite, cordierite, corrensite, corundum, covellite, crocidolite, cubanite, cummingtonite, cuprite, dahllite, datolite, daubreelite, delessite, diabantite, diallage, diamond, dickite, digenite, dihydrite, diopside, dioptase, djurleite, dolomite, domeykite, forsterite, francolite, freirinite, fuchsite, fulgurite, galena, garnet, garnierite, gersdorffite, gibbsite, glauconite, goethite, gold, halite, halloysite, halotrichite, harmotome, heterosite, heulandite, hisingerite, hollandite, hornblende,hyacinth, hydrocarbon, hydrohausmannite, hydromica, hydromuscovite, hydrotroilite, hypersthene, iddingsite, illite, ilmenite, isle royale greenstone, jacksonite, jacobsite, jasper, jaspilite, julgoldite, kamacite, kamiokite, kaolinite, kearsargeite, keweenawite, kinoite, koutekite, kupfferite, kutnahorite, kyanite, labradorite, langite, laumontite, lavendulan, lead, lechetelierite, ledouxite, leonhardite, lepidocrocite, lepidolite, manganoan siderite, manganocalcite, marcasite, margarite, marmolite, martite, masonite, maucherite, melaconite, melanochalcite, melanterite, melilite, mercury, mesolite, meta-autunite, metatorbernite, metatyuyamunite, microcline, millerite, minnesotaite, mirabilite, mohawk-algodonite, mohawkite, molybdenite, monazite, montmorillonite, muscovite, nacrite, nantokite, natrojarosite, natrolite, neltnerite, neotocite, niccolite, nontronite, oligoclase, oligonite, olivenite, olivine, orientite, orthoclase, ottrelite, palygorskite, paragonite, paramelaconite, pararammelsbergite, paratacamite, pargasite, patricianite, paxite, pectolite, pennine, pentlandite, peristerite, perthite, pharmacolite, phengite, phillipsite, phlogopite, phosphides, phosphorite, picrolite, picropharmacolite, pigeonite, pistacite, pitchblende, plagioclase, plancheite, plessite, polyhalite, posnjakite, powellite, prehnite, priorite, prochlorite, protolithionite, pyrolusite, pyrope, pyrophyllite, pyrostilpnite, pyroxene, pyrrhotite, quartz, rammelsbergite, rauenthalite, rhodochrosite, rhodonite, riebeckite, ripidolite, roscoelite, rubellan, rutherfordine, rutile, salite, salt, sanidine, saponite, saussurite, scapolite, scheelite, schefferite, schorl, schreibersite, scolectite, seamanite, semi-whitneyite, sericite, serpentine, siderite, silicon, sillimanite, silver, smaltite, smectite, soapstone, specularite, spessartite, sphalerite, sphene, spinel, spodumene, staurolite, steatite, stellerite, stibiodomeykite, stilbite, stilpnomelane, stinkstone, strontianite, sulfur, sussexite, sylvanite, sylvite, synchisite, szaibelyite, taenite, talc, tantalite, tellurium, tenorite, tetrahedrite, thomsonite, thuringite, tirodite, titanite, titanomagnetite, topaz, tourmaline, tremolite, trichalcite, tridymite, troilite, tyrolite, uralite, uraninite, uranothorite, uvarovite, vaterite,, vesuvianite, violarite, viridite, vivianite, vladimirite, wairakite, whitneyite, williamsite, wollastonite, wurtzite, xanthosiderite, xonotlite, zeolite, zircon, zoisite, zonochlorite

There are over 300 minerals found in Michigan.

Each mineral has its own set of uniquely identifiable properties or characteristics


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Minerals combine to form Rocks


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

SomeRocksare made up of just one mineral - like the sedimentaryrock salt(made up of the mineral halite) that is mined near Detroit.

OthersRocksare made up of many minerals - like the igneous rockgraniteand the metamorphic rockgneiss,found near Marquette.


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Now that some of the basicshave been covered, letsconsider some of the details about the

RockCycle


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

weathering

Metamorphic

Sedimentary

Igneous

TheRock Cycle

Rocks are weathered,eroded,transported,deposited,and lithified to formsedimentary rocks


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Becoming a SEDIMENTARY ROCK …

The igneousrock granite canbe physically weathered to produce clay and sand.

These sediments can be transported deposited and lithified to form sedimentary rocks.

Clay can become shale

Sand can become sandstone.


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Becoming a SEDIMENTARYROCK …

The metamorphicrock gneiss can be physically weathered to produce clay and sand.

These sediments can be transported deposited and lithified to form sedimentary rocks.

Clay can become shale

Sand can become sandstone.


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Becoming a SEDIMENTARYROCK …

Sedimentary rocks can be physically weathered to produce sediments that can become other sedimentary rocks.


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Becoming a SEDIMENTARYROCK …

H2O + CO2 H2CO3

2KAlSi3O8+ 2H+ + H2O  Al2Si2O5(OH)4+ 2K+ + 4SiO2

Chemical weathering dissolves the minerals in rocks.

The resulting dissolved compounds could form evaporites like rock salt or rock gypsum or chemical precipitates like some kinds of limestones. What forms depends upon composition and depositional environment factors.


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

In Michigan,sedimentaryrocksmake up the bedrock in the eastern northern, and southern peninsulas.

Igneous and Metamorphicrocks

Sedimentaryrocks

Generalized Bedrock Geology of Michigan


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Sedimentaryrocks found in Michigan include:

sandstone,shale,limestone,rock salt,and rock gypsum.

Igneous and Metamorphicrocks

Sedimentaryrocks

Generalized Bedrock Geology of Michigan


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

As the ice advances

it can scour the bedrock

and move a lot of material.

When the ice retreats,sediments are deposited

and new set of landforms exist.

Michigan has been sculpted by four major glacial advances in last 1.8 million years during the Pleistocene Epoch.


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

In Michigan, we live on top ofa complex groupof sediments that were deposited by the Glaciers.

What will thesesediments become?

Generalized Quaternary Geology of Michigan


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Glacial deposits

are much younger

than the

bedrock on which they are resting.

Let’s look at the Devonian age sedimentary rocks in Michigan.


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

The State Stone the ”Petoskey Stone”is a fossil coral (Hexagonaria percarinata) that lived in middleDevonian

age seas some375 million yearsago. The rocksthat formed in that environmentare mostlylimestones.


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Some Devonian life forms that existed were similar, while others were very different from what we know today.

Eddy Discovery Center


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

This

map of

the globe shows

one possible interpretation of the distribution of land and water duringmiddleDevoniantime.

MI

Do you know where, what is now Michigan, would be?


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Middle Devonian Rocks in Michigan

Middle Devonian rocks are made up of many different sedimentary rock formations. These rocks are shown in blue.


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Metamorphic

Sedimentary

melting

Igneous

TheRock Cycle

Igneous Rocksform frommolten rockormagmain thesubsurface orfromlavaextruded at the surface


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Becoming an IGNEOUS ROCK …

Any existing rock – igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary - can be subjected to enough heat and or pressure causing it to melt.

Molten rock is called magma.

When magma cools to a solid it becomes an igneous rock.

The kind of igneous rock formed depends on what was melted and how it cooled.

Igneousrocks are classified based on their mineral composition and texture.


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

In Michigan,igneous rocks make up the bedrock in the western northern peninsula.

Igneous and Metamorphicrocks

Sedimentaryrocks

Generalized Bedrock Geology of Michigan


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Igneous rocks found in Michigan include:

granite

basalt

rhyolite

granodiorite

pegmatite


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Metamorphic

Sedimentary

pressure, heat

Igneous

TheRock Cycle

Pressure, heatand fluidscause preexistingrocks or sediments to becomemetamorphic rocks


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Becoming a METAMORPHIC ROCK …

If the igneous rock basalt is exposed to sufficient heat and or pressure it can be transformed into the metamorphic rock call metabasalt

When the prefix meta is applied to a rock name that means that the original rock has been metamorphosed.


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Becoming a METAMORPHIC ROCK …

If the sedimentary rock limestone or dolomite is metamorphosed it can become the metamorphic rock marble.

If the sedimentary rock sandstone is metamorphosed it can become the metamorphic rock quartzite.

If the sedimentary rock shale is metamorphosed it can become the metamorphic rock slate.


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Becoming a METAMORPHIC ROCK …

If the metamorphic rock slate is metamorphosed it can become the metamorphic rock phyllite

If the metamorphic rock phyllite is metamorphosed it can become the metamorphic rock schist.

If the metamorphic rock schist is metamorphosed it can become the metamorphic rock gneiss.

If the metamorphic rock gneiss is metamorphosed it can become the metamorphic rock granite.


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

In Michigan,metamorphic rocks make up the bedrock in thewestern northern peninsula.

Igneous and Metamorphicrocks

Sedimentaryrocks

Generalized Bedrock Geology of Michigan

DEQ GLMD - The Rock Cycle in Michigan - February 2001


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Metamorphic rocksfound in Michigan include:

iron ore, schist, slate,quartzite,marble, andgneiss

Igneous and Metamorphicrocks

Sedimentaryrocks

Generalized Bedrock Geology of Michigan

DEQ GLMD - The Rock Cycle in Michigan - February 2001


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

Michigan's State Gemstone is chlorastrolite a variety of pumpellyite. Also called greenstoneand ‘Isle Royal Greenstone’. It is ametamorphicmineral found inalteredigneous rocks(basalts, and diabases).

DEQ GLMD - The Rock Cycle in Michigan - February 2001


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

weathering

Metamorphic

Sedimentary

pressure, heat

melting

Igneous

TheRock Cycle

TheRock Cycledoes not go in just one direction. Any given rock can go through any part of the cycle any number of times.

DEQ GLMD - The Rock Cycle in Michigan - February 2001


T h e r o c k c y c l e i n mi c h i g a n

weathering

Metamorphic

Sedimentary

pressure, heat

melting

Igneous

TheRock Cycle

I hope you better understand the Rock Cycleand what it means.

Please email any comments about this program to Steve Wilson: [email protected] - thanks

DEQ GLMD - The Rock Cycle in Michigan - February 2001


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