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Race and Space in Urban America Perspectives from Census 2000. William H. Frey Population Studies Center University of Michigan and The Brookings Institution www.frey-demographer.org. Common Misperceptions from Census 2000. America is a diverse melting pot Cities are back

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Race and Space in Urban America Perspectives from Census 2000

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Race and Space in Urban AmericaPerspectives from Census 2000

William H. Frey

Population Studies Center

University of Michigan

and

The Brookings Institution

www.frey-demographer.org


Common Misperceptions from Census 2000

  • America is a diverse melting pot

  • Cities are back

  • Racial segregation has not declined

  • Smaller households create "childless cities"

Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


America’s New Demographic Regions

  • The New Sunbelt

  • Melting Pot America

  • The Heartland

Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


Fastest Growing, 1990 - 2000

Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


Growth 1980s and 1990s

Selected New Sunbelt and Old Sunbelt States

Nevada

Colorado

Georgia

0

10

20

40

50

60

70

30

Florida

80s

Texas

90s

California

Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


Immigrant Magnet States

Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


New Sunbelt, Melting Pot,

and Heartland States

New Sunbelt

Melting Pot

Heartland States

Source: William H. Frey,


Demographic Components, 1990s

California

New York

Texas

Immigration

Domestic Migration

Natural Increase

Source: William Frey.


Demographic Components, 1990s

Colorado

Georgia

Pennsylvania

Immigration

Domestic Migration

Natural Increase

Source: William Frey


Immigration and Domestic Migration

Census Day 2000 - July 1, 2001


Foreign Born

U.S. Born – Out of State

1900-2000 California Transplants U.S. vs. Foreign Origin

Source: William Frey


Share of U.S. in Melting Pot States

Foreign Born 70%

Asian Language at Home 68%

Spanish at Home 76%

Mixed Marriages 51%

Native Born 37%

English at Home 34%

Source: William Frey.


90 - 99 Immigrants

1. New York ------------- 1,408,543

2. Los Angeles ----------- 1,257,925

3. San Francisco --------- 494,189

4. Miami ------------------ 420,488

5. Chicago ----------------- 363,662

6. Washington ------------ 267,175

7. Houston ---------------- 214,262

8. Dallas-Fort ------------- 173,500

9. San Diego -------------- 159,691

10. Boston ------------------ 137,634

10 “Classic” Immigrant Magnet Metros

Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


Domestic Migrant Magnet Metros

90 - 99 Net Migration

1. Atlanta ---------------- 498,283

2. Phoenix --------------- 396,092

3. Las Vegas ------------- 394,331

4. Dallas ------------------ 235,611

5. Denver ----------------- 200,658

6. Portland, OR ----------- 198,896

7. Austin ------------------ 168,817

8. Orlando ---------------- 167,120

9. Tampa ----------------- 157,209

10. Charlotte --------------154,320

Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


Hispanic Concentration2000

Source: William H Frey,


1.Los Angeles 1,819,370

2. New York 992,185

3. Chicago 600,810

4. Dallas 594,836

5. Houston 575,098

6. Miami 501,543

1990 - 2000 Greatest Hispanic Gainers

Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


Up- and Coming Hispanic Growth Magnets

2000 Populations > 50,000

  • %Growth

  • 1. Greensboro 694

  • 2. Charlotte622

  • 3. Raleigh569

  • 4. Atlanta362

  • 5. Las Vegas262

  • 6. Portland, OR175

  • 7. Orlando170

  • 8. Minn. -St. Paul162

  • 9. Reno145

  • 10. Grand Rapids136

  • 11. Salt Lake City133

  • Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


    Asian Concentration2000

    Source: William H Frey,


    1990 – 2000 Greatest Asian Gainers

    1. New York710,809

    2. Los Angeles611,201

    3. San Francisco554,326

    Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


    Up- and Coming Asian Growth Magnets

    2000 Populations > 50,000

    • %Growth

  • 1. Las Vegas286

  • 2. Atlanta200

  • 3. Austin175

  • 4 . Orlando171

  • 5. Tampa149

  • 6. Phoenix149

  • 7. Dallas133

  • 8. Portland OR119

  • 9. Minn. - St. Paul118

  • 10. Denver115

  • 11.Miami113

  • Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


    Black Concentration2000

    Source: William H Frey,


    1990 - 2000 Greatest Black Gainers

    1. Atlanta459,582

    2. New York450,725

    3. Washington DC358,727

    4. Miami241,492

    5. Chicago181,101

    6. Dallas176,293

    7. Philadelphia162,932

    8. Houston142,304

    Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


    1990 - 2000 Major Black Growth Centers

    (Over 200,000 blacks and 30% growth)

    • % Growth

  • 1. Orlando62.2

  • 2. Atlanta61.9

  • 3. Miami43.4

  • 4. Tampa36.8

  • 5. Charlotte34.7

  • 6. Columbus, OH34.6

  • 7. Jacksonville, FL34.3

  • 8. Boston33.8

  • 9. Raleigh33.1

  • 10. Dallas 31.7

  • Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


    White Concentration2000

    Source: William H Frey,


    1990 - 2000 Greatest White Decliners

    1. Los Angeles-843.065

    2. New York-679,790

    3. San Francisco-269,844

    4. Philadelphia-199,359

    5. Miami-118,506

    6. Chicago-93,794

    7. San Diego-84,448

    8. Pittsburgh-81,900

    Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


    1990 - 2000 Greatest White Gainers

    1. Phoenix434,195

    2. Atlanta359,299

    3. Las Vegas326,145

    4. Denver278,445

    5. Dallas255,208

    6. Portland OR230,535

    7. Seattle199,172

    8. Minn.St. Paul191,127

    9. Austin 187,426

    10. Raleigh 171,168

    11. Charlotte162,258

    12. Nashville146,615

    Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


    15 – 25%

    Over 25%

    Fastest White Growth, 1990-2000

    Source: William H. Frey


    White Dispersal to The New Sunbelt

    Source: William H. Frey,


    Greatest White Growth, 1990-2000

    GrowthCountyMetro Area

    175%Douglas, CODenver

    110%Forsyth GAAtlanta

    99%Archuleta COnonmet

    99%Elbert COnonmet

    96%Park COnonmet

    85%Paulding COAtlanta

    85%Boise IDnonmet

    84%Henry GAAtlanta

    79%Custer COnonmet

    79%Loudoun VAWashington DC77%Summit WAnonmet

    76%Washington WAnonmet

    Source: William H. Frey,


    Immigrant Magnets

    Other Metros

    Non Metro

    Distribution by Metro Size, 2000

    White

    Non-White

    Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


    America’s Patchwork Quilt

    Source: William H Frey,


    20% and Over

    10% to 20%

    5% to 10%

    Under 5%

    Children Speaking Spanish at Home

    Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


    Families of Poverty Children

    Married Couples

    Female Head

    Male Head

    California

    Michigan

    6

    8

    25

    47

    45

    69


    States with Adult Dropout Gains


    CA Education ShiftsAdults, 1990-2000


    City Revival is Immigrant Driven

    “White Flight” Continues


    Central City Growth Trends, 1960 - 2000

    Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


    % of Areas with 1990s Population Gains

    Total Population

    Central Cities71%

    Suburbs94%

    White Population

    Central Cities37%

    Suburbs79%

    Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


    Gains by Race, 1990-2000

    Whites

    Blacks

    Asians

    Hispanics

    Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


    Metro Area Categories:

    • Melting Pots

      (eg. LA, NY, Miami)

    • North-Largely White-Black

      (eg. Detroit, Cleveland)

    • North-Largely White

      ( eg. Pittsburgh, Minn-St Paul)

    • South-Largely White Black

      (eg. Atlanta, Raleigh)

    • South & West - Largely White

      (eg. Seattle, Denver, Tampa)


    City Race Compositions, 2000

    Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


    Melting Pot Metros

    Source: William Frey.


    North-Largely White-Black Metros

    Source: William Frey.


    South -Largely White-Black Metros

    Source: William Frey.


    White Growth, 1990-2000Atlanta Metro Area

    Gain: GT 50%

    Gain:10 - 50%

    Gain: 0 - 10%

    Loss: 0 -10%

    Loss: GT 10%


    White Growth, 1990-2000New York Metro Region

    Gain: GT 50%

    Gain:10 - 50%

    Gain: 0 - 10%

    Loss: 0 -10%

    Loss: GT 10%


    Minority Suburbanization and Integration is occurring for:

    • Melting Pot Metros

    • Black-gaining Metros

    • Multiple Race Persons

    Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


    Trends in Minority Suburbanization

    Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


    City-Suburb Dissimilarity for Metro Types

    Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


    Suburb Race Compositions, 2000

    Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


    Black White SegregationMetro Areas, 2000

    Source: Frey, Myers


    Declines in Black Segregation 1980 - 2000

    • Seg Index Decline

  • Atlanta -15

  • Dallas -23

  • Houston -16

  • Charlotte -12

  • Raleigh -15

  • Orlando -27

  • Tampa -17

  • Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


    Large City Segregation, 2000

    Black-White

    Chicago, Il87

    Aurora, CO33

    Hispanic-White

    Oakland,CA70

    Jacksonville, FL25

    Asian-White

    New Orleans64

    Anaheim CA20

    Source: Frey, Myers


    Black White SegregationBoomburbs, 2000

    Source: Frey, Myers


    Black White Mixed Race Persons Metro Segregation, 2000

    Source: Frey, Myers


    Exposure for Whites and Blacks

    New York Metro, 2000

    Whites

    Blacks

    W-B Mixed

    Hispanics

    Other

    Whites

    Blacks

    Asians

    Source: Frey, Myers


    Exposure for Whites and Asians

    San Francisco Metro, 2000

    Whites

    Asians

    W-A Mixed

    Hispanics

    Other

    Whites

    Blacks

    Asians

    Source: Frey, Myers


    Growing cities are attracting families

    Suburbs are attracting smaller younger , boomer and olderhouseholds

    Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


    Population and Household Growth

    1970 - 2000

    Source: William H. Frey


    Growing Central Cities, 1990s

    Pop RateHH RateDiff:

    Las Vegas85%77%-8%

    Bakersfield41%34%-7%

    Austin41%38%-3%

    Phoenix35%28%-7%

    Fresno21%15%-6%

    Orange Co21%11%-10%

    Source: Frey, Myers


    City Growth by Household Type

    Source: William H. Frey


    City Growth by Household Type

    Source: William H. Frey


    Ozzie and Harriet Cities Circa 2000

    1. Santa Ana, CA42

    2. Anaheim, CA32

    3. San Jose, CA30

    4. El Paso, TX30

    5. Virginia Beach, VA29

    6. Riverside, CA 28

    7. Arlington, TX28

    8. Anchorage, AK27

    9. Fresno, CA25

    10. Colorado Springs, CO25

    Source: William Frey


    Non-Family Households-Over 65

    1. Pittsburgh, PA14

    2. St. Louis, MO13

    3. Miami, FL12

    4. Louisville, KY12

    5. Buffalo, NY12

    6. Philadelphia, PA12

    7. Baltimore, MD11

    8. Cincinnati, OH11

    9. Cleveland, OH11

    10. Toledo, OH11

    Source: William Frey.


    Growth by Age, 1990-2000

    Source: William H. Frey


    Asian/Other

    Hispanic

    black

    white

    Los Angeles - Race Profiles by Age

    Under 15

    15-64

    65+

    Source: William Frey.


    Asian/Other

    Hispanic

    black

    white

    Salt Lake City - Race Profiles by Age

    Under 15

    15-64

    65+

    Source: William Frey.


    Asian/Other

    Hispanic

    black

    white

    Detroit - Race Profiles by Age

    Under 15

    15-64

    65+

    Source: William Frey.


    Los Angeles – 2025

    Age Structure by Race-Ethnicity


    Detroit – 2025

    Age Structure by Race-Ethnicity


    Common Misperceptions from Census 2000

    • America is a diverse melting pot

    • Cities are back

    • Racial segregation has not declined

    • Smaller households create "childless cities"

    Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


    Useful Websites

    www.census.org www.CensusScope.org

    Source: William H. Frey, analysis of 2000 Census


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