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CHAPTER 15 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. Structure and Function. The structure of the digestive system consists of the organs that comprise the alimentary canal, or digestive tract • The functions of the digestive system are: – To break down food to a form that can be used by body cells

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Chapter 15 digestive system l.jpg

CHAPTER 15DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


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Structure and Function

  • The structure of the digestive system consists of the organs that comprise the alimentary canal, or digestive tract

    • The functions of the digestive system are:

    – To break down food to a form that can be used by body cells

    – The digestive process, which includes transporting food and wastes, physical and chemical breakdown, absorption of digested food, and final elimination of wastes

Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


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Organs of the Digestive Process

  • Mouth

  • Pharynx

  • Esophagus

  • Stomach

  • Small intestine

  • Large intestine

  • Peritoneum

Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


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Accessory Organs of the Digestive System

• Accessory organs that aid in the process of food breakdown

– Pancreas

– Liver

– Gallbladder

Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


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Assessment Techniques

  • Radiography

  • Endoscopy

  • Gastric analysis

  • Fecal analysis

  • Palpation

  • Auscultation

Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


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Disorders of the Digestive System

  • Alactasia

    • Also called “lactose intolerance.” Not enough of the enzyme lactase is produced. The unabsorbed lactose ferments in the intestines leading to gas, cramps, and diarrhea.

  • Appendicitis

    • Inflammation of the appendix

  • Cholecystitis

    • Inflammation of the gallbladder

Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


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Disorders of the Digestive System (continued)

  • Cirrhosis

    • A chronic degenerative condition of the liver accompanied by the formation of scar tissue

  • Colon cancer

    • An abnormal growth in the large intestine

  • Constipation

    • The inability to defecate

  • Crohn’s disease

    • Inflammation and ulceration, usually affecting the ileum and colon, or both

Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


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Disorders of the Digestive System (continued)

  • Diarrhea

    • The passage of frequent and watery stools

  • Diverticulitis

    • The weakening of the colon wall, leading to formation of a pouch causing infection or abscesses if fecal material trapped

  • Food poisoning

    • Illnesses transmitted by food

Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


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Disorders of the Digestive System (continued)

  • Gastritis

    • Inflammation of the stomach lining

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease

    • Frequent heartburn or chest pain, bitter taste in the mouth, difficulty swallowing, frequent hoarseness or coughing

  • Halitosis

    • Or bad breath, is caused by anaerobic bacteria

Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


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Disorders of the Digestive System (continued)

  • Heartburn

    • A painful burning sensation in the esophagus caused by the backflow of acidic chyme from the stomach

  • Hemorrhoid

    • A painful dilated vein in the lower rectum or anus

  • Hepatitis

    • A viral infection of the liver

Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


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Disorders of the Digestive System (continued)

  • Mumps

    • A highly contagious viral infection of the parotid glands

  • Pancreatitis

    • A mild acute or chronic condition resulting from gallbladder stone blockage, disease, injury, or alcoholism

  • Peritonitis

    • An inflammation of the abdominal cavity caused by bacteria

Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


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Disorders of the Digestive System (continued)

  • Phenylketonuria

    • Inherited disease that can lead to mental retardation if untreated

  • Pyloric stenosis

    • A birth defect in which a constricted pyloric sphincter does not allow food to pass easily into the small intestine

Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


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Disorders of the Digestive System (continued)

  • Tay-Sachs

    • A recessive genetic disorder in which fat cells accumulate in the body and cause damage to normal cells

  • Ulcer

    • An open sore on the lining of the digestive tract

Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


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Issues and Innovations

•Food-borne illness

– Salmonella bacteria

– Escherichia coli

– Sulfite-sensitive people

• Eating disorders

– Bulimia and anorexia nervosa

• Designer foods

–Biotechnologically engineered food

Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


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