What Causes Changes to Earth’s Landforms?. Rocky Coast: These tall rocks along the Australian coast are sea stacks. They are all that is left of a rocky cliff that was pounded to pieces by ocean waves (page 238). Lesson 2. Page 240. Layers of Earth
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What Causes Changes to Earth’s Landforms?
Rocky Coast: These tall rocks along the Australian coast are sea stacks. They are all that is left of a rocky cliff that was pounded to pieces by ocean waves (page 238).
Movement between two plates can cause earthquakes. An earthquake is the shaking of Earth’s surface caused by movement of rock in the crust.
A seismogram shows the movement of Earth’s surface during an earthquake.
Most earthquakes occur along faults. A fault is a break in the crust, where rock moves. Sometimes this rock sticks. After some time, it may move forward suddenly. The movement sends out waves of energy that move through the crust. This energy causes shaking, rolling, and cracking in the crust and Earth’s surface.
In some places, snowfall is high and temperature is low. Sometimes more snow falls in winter than melts in summer. The snow piles up year after year. As it thickens, it turns to ice. If the mass of ice starts to move downhill, it becomes a glacier. A glacier is a large, moving mass of ice.
There are two main types of glaciers—alpine glaciers and ice sheets. Alpine glaciers flow down mountain valleys. The ice scrapes the floor and sides of the valley as it moves. The glaciers widens the valley, giving it a U shape. Fiords form where these valleys reach the coast. Ice sheets are huge glaciers that cover large areas, such as Antarctica and Greenland.
Mountain chains form
Islands made of volcanic mountains can form
Large cracks can form
Match the clue on the left to the term on the right.
This occurs when rivers drop bits of rocks and soils.
They are made of layers of lava, rock, and ash.
This causes shaking, rolling, and cracking in the crust and Earth’s surface.
These are large moving blocks of ice.