Culture and counseling
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Culture and Counseling. Ethics, Competence and Wellness Barbara . Gambino, M.A. Southern Illinois University. What does the word “ Culture ” mean to you?. Coal Miners Factory Workers Farming Hearing Impaired Visually Impaired Regional “Southern” “Northern” Military. Corporate

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Culture and Counseling

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Culture and counseling

Culture and Counseling

Ethics, Competence and Wellness

Barbara . Gambino, M.A.

Southern Illinois University


What does the word culture mean to you

What does the word “Culture” mean to you?


Embedded sub cultures

Coal Miners

Factory Workers

Farming

Hearing Impaired

Visually Impaired

Regional

“Southern”

“Northern”

Military

Corporate

Human Services

Sexual Orientation

Mentally Challenged

White collar/Blue Collar

“Rich”/”Poor”

Immigrant(Documented/ Undocumented)

Sports

Embedded (Sub) Cultures


Terms

TERMS

  • Culture is defined as the thoughts, beliefs, practices and behaviors of a person(s) in the areas of history, religion, social organization, economic organization, political organization, and collective production.

    Sue, D.W., & Sue, D. (1990). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.


Culture and counseling

  • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization described culture as follows: "... culture should be regarded as the set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group, and that it encompasses, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs".

    UNESCO. (2002). Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, issued on International Mother Language Day, February 21, 2002.


Terms1

TERMS

  • Racial identityis defined as a person’s sense of identification based on physical characteristics and genetic origins.

  • African American, Amerasian, Interracial identification,Regional Affiliations


Terms2

TERMS

  • Ethnic identityrefers to a person’s identity based on a group’s social and cultural heritage passed on to group members from one generation to the next.

  • Acculturation


Terms3

TERMS

  • Worldviewis defined as the perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, and assumptions that individuals and groups hold about the world.


Terms4

TERMS

  • Multicultural counselingis defined as a counseling relationship between a counselor and client who adhere to different cultural systems.

  • All counseling is multicultural.

    Pedersen, P. (1994). A handbook for developing multicultural awareness (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.


What does culture do

What does culture do?

Culture provides a system in which people:

  • set goals, make decisions, and solve problems;

  • explain and define social roles;

  • emphasize cooperation or competition;

  • view human nature, truth, time orientation, and property; and

  • define identity and individuality.


Multicultural counseling

Multicultural Counseling

  • Multicultural counseling competency overlaps with essential attributes associated with basic counseling competency.

  • Competent counselor’s have the ability to establish rapport, display interest in the client’s concerns, and comprehend the transactions between people and environments within a variety of social contexts (goals for this course).


Multicultural counseling1

Multicultural Counseling

  • The counselor attends to his or her own worldview, racial- and ethnic-identity, as well as to the worldview, racial- and ethnic-identity of his or her client.

  • Four areas of emphasis:


Social systems emphasis

Social Systems Emphasis

  • Multicultural counseling does not view problems as wholly residing within individuals (European-American);

  • adopts a perspective in which problems result from interactions among persons and social environments.

  • Specifically, distress in individuals is traceable to clashes between the cultural norms of clients and the social norms of the dominant culture.

    Steenbarger, B.N. (1993). A multicontextual model of counseling: Bridging brevity and diversity. Journal of Counseling and Development, 72, 8-15.


Awareness of counselor limitations

Awareness of Counselor Limitations

  • Recognize that clients are likely to possess distinctive world views that differ from those of counselors.

  • Counselors attempt to understand and work within the cultural framework of clients.

  • Counselors who uncritically adopt the perspectives of the dominant culture, can reinforce the very patterns of misunderstanding and evaluation that generate client client presenting problems.

    Steenbarger, B.N. (1993). A multicontextual model of counseling: Bridging brevity and diversity. Journal of Counseling and Development, 72, 8-15.


Empowerment focus

Empowerment Focus

  • Multicultural counselors view their roles as developmental, emphasizing the creation of experiences of empowerment for clients.

  • …Affirm distinctive world views and raising clients’ awareness of the often harmful impact of the dominant culture,

  • …Facilitate identity development, enabling individuals to understand, accept, and value their own differences and those of others.

    Steenbarger, B.N. (1993). A multicontextual model of counseling: Bridging brevity and diversity. Journal of Counseling and Development, 72, 8-15.


Skills focus

Skills Focus

  • Counselors recognize that clients may possess culturally-distinctive social norms and communication styles.

  • ..strive for “cultural competence” by learning how to recognize and work within the norms and styles presented by a diverse clientele.

    Steenbarger, B.N. (1993). A multicontextual model of counseling: Bridging brevity and diversity. Journal of Counseling and Development, 72, 8-15.


Counselor s ethical responsibilities

Counselor’s Ethical Responsibilities

  • acknowledge and recognize ethnic, racial, and cultural factors as significant to the counseling relationship;

  • respect and be aware of the many ethnic, cultural, and racial factors that might contribute to the orientation and values of the client;

  • consider the impact, importance, and potential support of community and social agencies that the client might be involved with;


Ethical responsibilities cont

Ethical Responsibilities (cont)

  • recognize and attend to the social, economic, and political acts of racism, sexism, discrimination, and prejudice; and

  • consider within-group differences for clients of all ethnic, racial, cultural, gender, and class groups..

    Sue, D.W., Bernier, J.E., Durran, A., Feinberg, L., Pedersen, P., & Vasquez-Nuttall, E. (1982). Position paper: Cross-cultural counseling competencies. The Counseling Psychologist, 10(2), 45-52.


What does culture mean in the context of training in basic counseling skills

What does culture mean in the context of training in basic counseling skills?


Counseling skills training

Counseling Skills Training

  • Each new skill learned and practiced in the context of your training must be considered in a cultural context: how it is perceived, understood and responded to by your client.


Attending skills

Attending Skills

  • Eye Contact

  • Body posture and stance

  • Physical Contact (shaking hands, touch)

  • Physical presence in the counseling setting

  • Voice Tone

  • Hand gestures

  • Male vs female

    Pedersen, P.B., & Ivey, A.E. (1993). Culture-centered counseling and interviewing skills. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.


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