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Primate Order. Anamalia, Vertebrata, Chordata, Mammalia. Primate Classification. P rimates – monkeys, lemurs, gorillas, chimps, humans, etc. Primates cont. Family Hominoidea (hominid) – great apes (gorilla, orangutans, chimps & bonobos), humans (living and extinct)

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Primate order

Primate Order

Anamalia, Vertebrata, Chordata, Mammalia


Primate classification
Primate Classification

Primates – monkeys, lemurs, gorillas, chimps, humans, etc.


Primates cont
Primates cont.

  • Family Hominoidea (hominid)– great apes (gorilla, orangutans, chimps & bonobos), humans (living and extinct)

  • Hominins – chimps, bonobos, and humans (living and extinct)

  • Genus Homo – the humans


Primates
Primates

  • hair or fur

  • warm-blooded

  • live young

  • suckle

  • infant dependence

  • social life

  • play

  • observation and imitation

  • pecking order

Common Primate Traits


Primate family tree
Primate Family Tree

Orangutan

Crown lemur


Ardipithecus genus
Ardipithecus genus

  • 1st homonims?

  • Africa (Ethiopia)

  • 6 mya – 4 mya

  • teeth more similar to hominins

    than chimps

  • probably not bipedal

  • lived in woodlands and grasslands


Australopithecus genus
Australopithecus genus

  • 4 mya – 2 mya

  • throughout E Africa

  • ate fruits, vegetables & tubers

  • small brain but likely bipedal

  • not tool users

  • evolved into Homo habilis


Hominin evolution
Hominin Evolution

  • Homo habilis (2.0 – 1.6mya)

  • H. erectus (1.9-70kyBP)

  • H. neanderthalensis (300-30kyBP)

  • H. sapiens (200kyBP – present)

  • ~ 20 different homo species

Scale: Millions of Years BP



Homo habilis 2 3 1 6 mya
Homo habilis: 2.3-1.6 mya

  • first humans

  • In Africa

  • toolmaker

  • probable meat-eater

  • possibly arboreal (woodlands)

  • no speech

Artist’s representation of a Homo habilis band as it might have existed two million years ago.


Homo erectus 1 8 mya to 70 000 yrs bp
Homo erectus 1.8 mya to 70 000 yrs BP

  • evolved in Africa and migrated to Asia

  • bigger brains

  • more complex tools

  • walked completely upright

  • lived in small groups (bands)

  • fire

  • cooked meat

  • used furs

  • language unlikely

  • may have made sounds

  • possibly wiped out by Toba supereruption? (~ 70 000 yrs BP in Indonesia)


Homo neandertalensis
Homo neandertalensis

  • 300 000 – 30 000 yrs BP

  • Europe

  • massive brains (as large or larger than ours)

  • large torso, short limbs, broad nasal passages

  • carnivores, adapted to cold climates

  • co-existed with homo sapiens

  • DNA testing shows human DNA contains 4-5% Neandertal DNA


Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens

  • Archaic – 200,000 to 35,000 years BP

    • Homo sapiens

  • Modern – 35,000 years BP to present

    • Anatomically modern

    • Homo sapiens sapiens


Modern homo sapiens
Modern Homo Sapiens

  • Multiregional Model

    • Humans evolved more or less simultaneously across the entire Old World from several ancestral populations.

  • Rapid-Replacement Model (Out of Africa)

    • Humans evolved only once--in Africa --and then migrated throughout the Europe and Asia, replacing their ancestors

    • mDNA evidence supports this


Out of africa
Out of Africa

  • JOURNEY OF MANKIND - The Peopling of the World

  • The Real Eve DVD


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