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Financial Statement Analysis. Chapter 17. Learning Objectives. Describe basic financial statement analytical methods. Use financial statement analysis to assess the solvency of a business. Use financial statement analysis to assess the profitability of a business.

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Financial statement analysis

Financial Statement Analysis

Chapter 17


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • Describe basic financial statement analytical methods.

  • Use financial statement analysis to assess the solvency of a business.

  • Use financial statement analysis to assess the profitability of a business.

  • Describe the contents of corporate annual reports.


Learning objective

Learning Objective

1

Describe basic financial statement analytical methods.


Basic analytical methods

Basic Analytical Methods

  • Users analyze a company’s financial statements using a variety of analytical methods. Three such methods are as follows:

    • Horizontal analysis

    • Vertical analysis

    • Common-sized statements


Horizontal analysis

Horizontal Analysis

  • The percentage analysis of increases and decreases in related items in comparative financial statements is called horizontal analysis.


Horizontal analysis1

Horizontal Analysis


Horizontal analysis2

Horizontal Analysis:

Difference$17,000

Base year (2013)$533,000

= 3.2%

Horizontal Analysis


Horizontal analysis3

Horizontal Analysis


Horizontal analysis4

Horizontal Analysis:

Difference$25,800

Base year (2013)$64,700

= 39.9%

Horizontal Analysis


Horizontal analysis5

Horizontal Analysis


Horizontal analysis6

Horizontal Analysis

Horizontal Analysis:

Difference$296,500

Base year (2013)$1,234,000

= 24.0%


Horizontal analysis7

Horizontal Analysis


Horizontal analysis8

Horizontal Analysis

Horizontal Analysis:

Difference$37,500

Base year (2013)$ 100,000

= 37.5%


Vertical analysis

Vertical Analysis

  • A percentage analysis used to show the relationship of each component to the total within a single financial statement is called vertical analysis.


Vertical analysis1

Vertical Analysis

  • In a vertical analysis of the balance sheet, each asset item is stated as a percent of the total assets.

  • Each liability and stockholders’ equity item is stated as a percent of the total liabilities and stockholders’ equity.


Vertical analysis2

Vertical Analysis


Vertical analysis3

Vertical Analysis

Vertical Analysis:

Current Assets$550,000

Total Assets$ 1,139,500

= 48.3%


Vertical analysis4

Vertical Analysis

  • In a vertical analysis of the incomestatement, each item is stated as a percent of net sales.


Vertical analysis5

Vertical Analysis


Vertical analysis6

Vertical Analysis

Vertical Analysis:

Selling expenses $191,000

Net sales $1,498,000

= 12.8%


Common sized statements

Common-Sized Statements

  • In a common-sized statement, all items are expressed as percentages with no dollar amounts shown.

  • Common-sized statements are useful for comparing the current period with prior periods, individual businesses with one another, or one business with industry averages.


Common sized statements1

Common-Sized Statements


Learning objective1

Learning Objective

2

Use financial statement analysis to assess the solvency of a business.


Solvency analysis

Solvency Analysis

  • All users of financial statements are interested in the ability of a company to do the following:

    • Meet its financial obligations (debts), calledsolvency.

    • Earn income, called profitability.


Solvency analysis1

Solvency Analysis

  • Solvency analysis focuses on the ability of a business to pay its current and noncurrent liabilities.

  • Solvency and profitability are interrelated. A company that cannot pay its debts will have difficulty obtaining credit, which can decrease its profitability.


Current position analysis

Current Position Analysis

  • A company’s ability to pay its current liabilities is called current position analysis. It is of special interest to short-term creditors.


Working capital

Working Capital

  • The excess of current assets over current liabilities is called working capital. Working capital is often used to evaluate a company’s ability to pay current liabilities.

  • Working capital is computed as follows:

Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities


Current ratio

Current Assets

Current Liabilities

Current Ratio =

Current Ratio

  • The current ratio, sometimes called the working capital ratio,also measures a company’s ability to pay its current liabilities.

  • The current ratio is computed as follows:


Current ratio1

$550,000

$210,000

$533,000

$243,000

Current Ratio

  • The current ratio for Lincoln Company is computed below.

2014 2013

Current assets$550,000$533,000

Current liabilities$210,000$243,000

Current ratio 2.6 2.2


Quick ratio

Quick Assets

Current Liabilities

Quick Ratio =

Quick Ratio

  • A ratio that measures the “instant” debt-paying ability of a company is called the quick ratio, or acid-test ratio. It is computed as follows:

Quick assets are cash and other assets that can be easily converted to cash.


Quick assets

$280,500

$210,000

$244,700

$243,000

Quick Assets

  • The quick ratio for Lincoln Company is computed below.

20142013

Quick assets:

Cash$ 90,500$ 64,700

Temporary Investments 75,00060,000

Accounts receivable (net) 115,000 120,000

Total quick assets $280,500$244,700

Current liabilities $210,000$243,000

Quick ratio 1.3 1.0


Accounts receivable turnover

Net Sales

Average Accounts Receivable

Accounts Receivable Turnover =

Accounts Receivable Turnover

  • The relationship between sales and accounts receivable may be stated as accounts receivable turnover. Collecting accounts receivable as quickly as possible improves a company’s solvency.

  • The accounts receivable turnover is computed as follows:


Accounts receivable turnover1

$1,498,000

$117,500

$1,200,000

$130,000

Accounts Receivable Turnover

  • The accounts receivable turnover for Lincoln Company is computed below.

20142013

Net sales $1,498,000$1,200,000

Accounts receivable (net):

Beginning of year$ 120,000$ 140,000

End of year 115,000 120,000

Total$ 235,000$ 260,000

Average (Total ÷ 2)$ 117,500$ 130,000

Accounts receivable turnover 12.7 9.2


Number of days sales in receivables

Average Accounts Receivable

Average Daily Sales

Number of Days’ Sales in Receivables

=

Net Sales

365

Number of Days’ Sales in Receivables

  • The number of days’ sales in receivables is an estimate of the length of time (in days) the accounts receivable have been outstanding. It is computed as follows:


Number of days sales in receivables1

20142013

  • Average accounts receivable

    • (Total accounts receivable ÷ 2)$ 117,500$ 130,000

  • Net sales$1,498,000$1,200,000

  • Average daily sales

  • (Net sales ÷ 365)$ 4,104$ 3,288

$117,500

$4,104

$130,000

$3,288

Number of Days’ Sales in Receivables

  • The number of days’ sales in receivables for Lincoln Company is computed below.

Number of days’ sales in receivables 28.6 39.5


Inventory turnover

Cost of Goods Sold

Average Inventory

Inventory Turnover =

Inventory Turnover

  • The relationship between the volume of goods (merchandise) sold and inventory may be stated as the inventory turnover. The purpose of this ratio is to assess the efficiency of a firm in managing its inventory.

  • The inventory turnover is computed as follows:


Inventory turnover1

$1,043,000

$273,500

$820,000

$297,000

Inventory Turnover

  • Lincoln’s inventory balance at the beginning of 2013 is $311,000.

20142013

Cost of goods sold$1,043,000$820,000

Inventories:

Beginning of year$ 283,000$311,000

End of year 264,000 283,000

Total$ 547,000$594,000

Average (Total ÷ 2)$ 273,500$297,000

Inventory turnover 3.8 2.8


Number of days sales in inventory

Cost of Goods Sold

365

Average Inventory

Average Daily Cost of Goods Sold

Number of Days’ Sales in Inventory

=

Number of Days’ Sales in Inventory

  • The number of days’ sales in inventory is a rough measure of the length of time it takes to purchase, sell, and replace the inventory.

  • The number of days’ sales in inventory is computed as follows:


Number of days sales in inventory1

Number of Days’ Sales in Inventory

  • The number of days’ sales in inventory for Lincoln Company is computed below.

2014 2013

  • Average Inventory$273,500$297,000

$547,000 ÷ 2

$594,000 ÷ 2

(continued)


Number of days sales in inventory2

$273,500

$2,858

$297,000

$2,247

Number of Days’ Sales in Inventory

  • The number of days’ sales in inventory for Lincoln Company is computed below.

2014 2013

  • Average Inventory$273,500$297,000

  • Average daily cost of goods sold$2,858$2,247

$1,043,000 ÷ 365

$820,000 ÷ 365

Number of days’ sales in inventory 95.7 132.2


Ratio of fixed assets to long term liabilities

Fixed Assets (net)

Long-Term Liabilities

Ratio of Fixed Assets to Long-Term Liabilities

=

Ratio of Fixed Assets to Long-Term Liabilities

  • The ratio of fixed assets to long-termliabilities is a solvency measure that indicates the margin of safety of the note-holders or bondholders. It also indicates the ability of the business to borrow additional funds on a long-term basis.

  • The ratio is computed as follows:


Ratio of fixed assets to long term liabilities1

20142013

Fixed assets (net) $444,500$470,000

Long-term liabilities $100,000$200,000

$444,500

$100,000

$470,000

$200,000

Ratio of Fixed Assets to Long-Term Liabilities

  • To illustrate, the ratio of fixed assets to long-term liabilities for Lincoln Company is computed below.

Ratio of fixed assets to

long-term liabilities 4.4 2.4


Ratio of liabilities to stockholders equity

Total Liabilities

Total Stockholders’ Equity

Ratio of Liabilities to Stockholders’ Equity

=

Ratio of Liabilities to Stockholders’ Equity

  • The relationship between the total claims of the creditors and the owners—theratio ofliabilities to stockholders’equity—is a solvency measure that indicates the margin of safety for creditors.

  • The ratio is computed as follows:


Ratio of liabilities to stockholders equity1

20142013

Total liabilities $310,000$443,000

Total stockholders’ equity $829,500$787,500

$310,000

$829,500

$443,000

$787,500

Ratio of Liabilities to Stockholders’ Equity

  • The ratio of liabilities to stockholders’ equity for Lincoln Company is computed below.

Ratio of liabilities to

stockholders’ equity 0.4 0.6


Number of times interest charges earned

Number of Times Interest Charges Earned

  • Corporations in some industries normally have high ratios of debt to stockholders’ equity. For such corporations, the relative risk of the debt-holders is normally measured as the number of times interestcharges are earned (during the year), sometimes called the fixed chargecoverage ratio.


Number of times interest charges earned1

Income Before Income Tax + Interest Expense

Interest Expense

Number of Times Interest Charges Are Earned

=

Number of Times Interest Charges Earned

  • It is computed as follows:


Number of times interest charges earned2

$168,500

$6,000

$146,600

$12,000

Number of Times Interest Charges Earned

  • The number of times interest charges are earned for Lincoln Company is computed below.

2014 2013

Income before income tax$162,500$134,600

Add interest expense 6,000 12,000

Amount available to meet

interest charges $168,500$146,600

Number of times interest

charges earned 28.1 12.2


Number of times interest charges earned3

Number of Times Preferred Dividends Are Earned

Net Income

Preferred Dividends

=

Number of Times Interest Charges Earned

  • The number of times interest charges are earned can be adapted for use with dividends on preferred stock.

  • The number of times preferred dividends are earned is computed as follows:


Learning objective2

Learning Objective

3

Use financial statement analysis to assess the profitability of a business.


Profitability analysis

Profitability Analysis

  • Profitability analysis focuses primarily on the relationship between operating results and the resources available to a business.


Ratio of net sales to assets

Net Sales

Average Total Assets

(excluding long-term investments)

Ratio of Net Sales to Assets

=

Ratio of Net Sales to Assets

  • The ratio of net sales to assets is a profitability measure that shows how effectively a company utilizes its assets.

  • The ratio is computed as follows:


Ratio of net sales to assets1

Excludes long-term investments

Ratio of Net Sales to Assets

  • The ratio of net sales to assets for Lincoln Company is computed below.

20142013

Net sales $1,498,000$1,200,000

Total assets:

Beginning of year$1,053,000$1,010,000

End of year 1,044,500 1,053,000

Total$2,097,500$2,063,000

Average (Total ÷ 2) $1,048,750$1,031,500

(continued)


Ratio of net sales to assets2

$1,498,000

$1,048,750

$1,200,000

$1,031,500

Ratio of Net Sales to Assets

  • The ratio of net sales to assets for Lincoln Company is computed below.

20142013

Net sales $1,498,000$1,200,000

Total assets:

Beginning of year$1,053,000$1,010,000

End of year 1,044,500 1,053,000

Total$2,097,500$2,063,000

Average (Total ÷ 2) $1,048,750$1,031,500

Ratio of net sales to assets 1.4 1.2


Rate earned on total assets

Net Income + Interest Expense

Average Total Assets

Rate Earned on Total Assets

=

Rate Earned on Total Assets

  • The rate earned on total assets measures the profitability of total assets, without considering how the assets are financed.

  • It is computed as follows:


Rate earned on total assets1

20142013

Net income$ 91,000$ 76,500

Plus interest expense 6,000 12,000

Total $ 97,000$ 88,500

Total assets:

Beginning of year$1,230,500$1,187,500

End of year 1,139,500 1,230,500

Total$2,370,000$2,418,000

Average (Total ÷ 2) $1,185,000$1,209,000

$97,000

$1,185,000

$88,500

$1,209,000

Rate Earned on Total Assets

  • This ratio for Lincoln Company is computed below. Total assets are $1,187,500 at the beginning of 2013.

Rate earned on total assets 8.2% 7.3%


Rate earned on stockholders equity

Net Income

Average Total Stockholders’ Equity

Rate Earned on Stockholders’ Equity

=

Rate Earned on Stockholders’ Equity

  • The rate earned on stockholders’ equity measures the rate of income earned on the amount invested by the stockholders.

  • It is computed as follows:


Rate earned on stockholders equity1

20142013

Net income$ 91,000$ 76,500

Stockholders’ equity:

Beginning of year$ 787,500$ 750,000

End of year 829,500 787,500

Total$1,617,000$1,537,500

Average (Total ÷ 2)$ 808,500$ 768,750

$91,000

$808,500

$76,500

$768,750

Rate Earned on Stockholders’ Equity

  • The rate for Lincoln Company is computed below. Total stockholders’ equity is $750,000 at the beginning of 2013.

Rate earned on stockholders’

equity 11.3% 10.0%


Rate earned on stockholders equity2

Rate Earned on Stockholders’ Equity

  • The difference between the rate earned on stockholders’ equity and the rate earned on total assets is called leverage.


Rate earned on stockholders equity3

2014 2013

Rate earned on stockholders’ equity11.3%10.0%

Less rate earned on total assets 8.2 7.3

Effect of leverage3.1%2.7%

Rate Earned on Stockholders’ Equity

  • For Lincoln Company, the effect of leverage is computed as follows:


Rate earned on stockholders equity4

Rate Earned on Stockholders’ Equity


Rate earned on common stockholders equity

Net Income – Preferred Dividends

Average Common Stockholders’ Equity

Rate Earned on Common Stockholders’ Equity

=

Rate Earned on Common Stockholders’ Equity

  • The rate earned on common stockholders’equity measures the rate of profits earned on the amount invested by the common stockholders.

  • It is computed as follows:


Rate earned on common stockholders equity1

Rate Earned on Common Stockholders’ Equity

  • Lincoln Company had $150,000 of 6% preferred stock outstanding on December 31, 2014 and 2013. Thus, preferred dividends of $9,000 ($150,000 x 6%) are deducted from net income. Lincoln’s common stockholders’ equity is determined as follows:

(continued)


Rate earned on common stockholders equity2

20142013

Net income$ 91,000$ 76,500

Less preferred dividends 9,000 9,000

Total$ 82,000$ 67,500

Common stockholders’ equity:

Beginning of year $ 637,500$ 600,000

End of year 679,500 637,500

Total$1,317,000$1,237,500

Average (Total ÷ 2) $ 658,500$ 618,750

$82,000

$658,500

$67,500

$618,750

Rate Earned on Common Stockholders’ Equity

Rate earned on common

stockholders’ equity 12.5% 10.9%


Earnings per share on common stock

Net Income – Preferred Dividends

Shares of Common Stock Outstanding

Earnings per Share (EPS) on Common Stock

=

Earnings per Share on Common Stock

  • Earnings per share (EPS) on common stock measures the share of profits that are earned by a share of common stock. GAAP requires the reporting of earnings per share in the income statement.

  • It is computed as follows:


Earnings per share on common stock1

$82,000

50,000

$67,500

50,000

Earnings per Share on Common Stock

  • EPS for Lincoln Company is computed below.

2014 2013

Net income$91,000$76,500

Less preferred dividends 9,000 9,000

Total $82,000$67,500

Shares of common stock 50,00050,000

Earnings per share on common stock $1.64 $1.35


Price earnings ratio

Market Price per Share of Common Stock

Earnings per Share on Common Stock

Price-earnings (P/E) ratio

=

Price-Earnings Ratio

  • Another profitability measure quoted by the financial press is the price-earnings (P/E)ratio on common stock. The price-earnings ratio on common stock measures a company’s future earnings prospects.

  • The price-earnings ratio is computed as follows:


Price earnings ratio1

2014 2013

Market price per share of

common stock$41.00$27.00

Earnings per share on common

stock ÷ $1.64÷ $1.35

Price-Earnings Ratio

  • The P/E ratio for Lincoln Company is computed below.

Price-earnings ratio on

common stock 25 20


Dividends per share

Dividends per Share

  • Dividends per share can be reported with earnings per share to indicate the relationship between dividends and earnings.

  • Comparing these two per-share amounts measures the extent to which earnings are being distributed to common shareholders. The ratio for dividends per share is at the top of the next slide.

(continued)


Dividends per share1

Dividends

Shares of Common Stock Outstanding

Dividends per Share

=

2014 2013

Dividends on common stock$40,000$30,000

Shares of common stock outstanding ÷ 50,000÷ 50,000

Dividends per Share

  • The dividends per share for Lincoln Company are computed below.

Dividends per share of common stock $0.80 $0.60


Dividends and earnings per share

Dividends and Earnings per Share


Dividend yield

Dividends per Share of Common Stock

Market Price per Share of Common Stock

Dividend Yield

=

Dividend Yield

  • The dividend yield on common stock measures the rate of return to common stockholders from cash dividends.

  • It is of special interest to investors whose objective is to earn dividends from their investment. It is computed as follows:


Dividend yield1

20142013

Dividends per share of

common stock$ 0.80$ 0.60

Market price per share of

common stock$41.00$27.00

$0.80

$41

$0.60

$27

Dividend Yield

  • The dividend yield for Lincoln Company is computed below.

Dividend yield on common stock 2.0% 2.2%


Summary of analytical measures

Summary of Analytical Measures

(continued)


Summary of analytical measures1

Summary of Analytical Measures

(concluded)


Learning objective3

Learning Objective

4

Describe the contents of corporate annual reports.


Corporate annual reports

Corporate Annual Reports

  • In addition to the financial statements and the accompanying notes, corporate annual reports usually include the following sections:

    • Management discussion and analysis

    • Report on internal control

    • Report on fairness of the financial statements


Management discussion and analysis

Management Discussion and Analysis

  • Management’s Discussion and Analysis(MD&A) is required in annual reports filed with the SEC.

  • It contains management’s analysis of current operations and its plans for the future.

  • Typical items included in the MD&A are:

    • Management’s analysis and explanations of any significant changes between the current and prior year’s financial statements.

(continued)


Management discussion and analysis1

Management Discussion and Analysis

  • Important accounting principles or policies that could affect interpretation of the financial statements.

  • Management’s assessment of the company’s liquidity and the availability of capital to the company.

  • Significant risk exposures that might affect the company.

  • Any “off-balance-sheet” arrangements such as leases not included directly in the financial statements.


Report on internal control

Report on Internal Control

  • The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires a report stating management’s responsibility for establishing and maintaining internal control. In addition, management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal controls over financial reporting is included in the report.

  • It also requires a public accounting firm to verify management’s conclusions on internal control.


Report on fairness of financial statements

Report on Fairness of Financial Statements

  • All publicly held corporations are required by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 to have an independent audit (examination) of their financial statements. The CPA firm that conducts the audit renders an opinion on the fairness of the statements.


Appendix

Appendix

Unusual Items on the Income Statement


Unusual items on the income statement

Unusual Items on the Income Statement

  • Unusual items affecting the current period’s income statement include the following:

    • Discontinued operations

    • Extraordinary items


Discontinued operations

Discontinued Operations

  • A company may discontinue a segment of its operations by selling or abandoning the segment’s operations.

  • A note accompanying the income statement should describe the operations sold, including such details as the date operations were discontinued, the assets sold, and the effect (if any) on current and future operations.


Discontinued operations1

Discontinued Operations

  • Jones Corporation produces and sells electrical products, hardware supplies, and lawn equipment. Because of lack of profits, Jones discontinues its electrical products operation and sells the remaining inventory and other assets at a loss of $100,000. Exhibit 11 (next slide) illustrates the reporting of the loss on the discontinued operations.


Discontinued operations2

Discontinued Operations


Extraordinary items

Extraordinary Items

  • An extraordinary item is defined as an event or transaction with both of the following characteristics:

    • Unusual in nature

    • Infrequent in occurrence


Extraordinary items1

Extraordinary Items


Reporting earnings per share

Reporting Earnings per Share


Financial statement analysis1

Financial Statement Analysis

The End


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