Exam Syllabus 2001
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Exam Syllabus 2001 3. Biotic System PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Exam Syllabus 2001 3. Biotic System major factors and processes influencing the nature of soils ( podsolization, laterization, calcification, salinization, gleying ). What is soil?. “Soil is a natural body

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Exam Syllabus 2001 3. Biotic System

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Exam syllabus 2001 3 biotic system

Exam Syllabus 2001

3. Biotic System

major factors and processes influencing the nature of soils (podsolization, laterization, calcification, salinization, gleying)


Exam syllabus 2001 3 biotic system

What is soil?

“Soil is a natural body

comprised of solids (minerals & organic matter), liquid and gases that occurs on the the land surface, occupies space, and is characterized by one or both of the following:

horizons that are distinguishable from the initial material as a result of additions, losses, transfers and transformation of energy and matter

or the ability of supporting rooted plants in a natural environment.……


Exam syllabus 2001 3 biotic system

What is soil?

……

The upper limit of soil is the boundary between soil and air, shallow (<2.5m), live plants or undecomposed plant materials.

The lower boundary is arbitrarily set at 200 cm for the purpose of soil classification”

(Keys to Soil Taxonomy, USDA)


Exam syllabus 2001 3 biotic system

Soil profile and horizons

Profile

-all the horizons taken together

Horizons

-layers distinguished from one another on the basis of certain physical & chemical properties


Exam syllabus 2001 3 biotic system

Atmosphere

Hydrosphere

Biosphere

Lithosphere

A soil system - Interactions with other systems

Time


Exam syllabus 2001 3 biotic system

A soil system - Interactions with other systems

Inputs/Factors

Climate

Relief

Organisms

Parent material

Time

Soil properties

Profiles

Horizons

Physical

Chemical

Biological

Soil forming processes

Addition

Transformation

Transfer

Removal


Exam syllabus 2001 3 biotic system

Soil formation – Horizon development processes


Exam syllabus 2001 3 biotic system

Soil formation – Horizon development processes

1. Additions

-organic or mineral materials that are transported into the location where a soil is forming

-When plants die or leaves fall on to the surface they decompose adding organic matter to the soil.

-Mineral materials can be brought by water, ice, wind or human beings.

-Processes: Plant litters and animals dropping

Transportation and deposition by denudation agents

Agrochemical application

Refuse disposal


Exam syllabus 2001 3 biotic system

Soil formation – Horizon development processes

  • 2. Transformation

  • -materials added to the developing soil can occur by chemical and biological processes acting on them

  • -important in the formation of clay and humus structure within the soil

  • -Processes: Weathering

  • Humification

    • Mineralization


Exam syllabus 2001 3 biotic system

Soil formation – Horizon development processes

  • 3. Transfer

  • -involves the movement of soil-forming materials through the developing soil profile

  • -occurs by water running through the soil transferring it from upper to lower portions of the profile

  • -burrowing animals move soil materials within the profile & create passage ways through which air and water can travel

  • -Processes: Translocation / Leaching, Desaliniztion,

    • Desilication, Dispersion, Eluviation, Illuviation,

    • Pedoturbation, Upward movement / Capillarity


Exam syllabus 2001 3 biotic system

Soil formation – Horizon development processes

4. Removal / Losses

-soil forming materials completely removed from the soil profile

-lost in 4 forms: gases, solutes, particulate material & vegetation removal

-Processes: Evapotranspiration

Soil erosion by winds, water or human beings

Harvesting of crops


Exam syllabus 2001 3 biotic system

Example - Oxisol


Exam syllabus 2001 3 biotic system

Example - Aridisol


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