Chemical overview product manufacture use and disposal
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Chemical Overview – Product Manufacture, Use, and Disposal . Perfluorochemicals . Maps issued by the state Health Department in July 2007 show low levels of PFBA in groundwater beneath 99 square miles of Washington County, a quarter of its land mass

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Chemical overview product manufacture use and disposal

Chemical Overview – Product Manufacture, Use, and Disposal


Perfluorochemicals

Perfluorochemicals

  • Maps issued by the state Health Department in July 2007 show low levels of PFBA in groundwater beneath 99 square miles of Washington County, a quarter of its land mass

  • The Health Department is continuing to investigate the extent of contamination, and Woodbury officials are awaiting further results before sinking new municipal wells

  • The state considers the chemical a pollutant but is still studying its long-term health effects


January 30 2008

January 30, 2008

  • A chemical formerly manufactured by 3M has been found at elevated levels in nine more metro area lakes, according to a study released Tuesday, and is likely entering the waters through stormwater runoff

  • The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) collected 381 fish from 20 lakes and two river reaches last spring and summer. They were analyzed them for PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate) and related compounds. 3M manufactured the chemical for decades for use in Scotchgard, firefighting foams and other products before ceasing production in 2002

  • The metro lakes study began after the surprise discovery last spring of relatively high levels of PFOS in bluegills from Lake Calhoun in Minneapolis. Scientists couldn't explain the source of the contamination, because the lake is not near any known areas where 3M manufactured or disposed of the chemical


Some generalizations

Some Generalizations


Product chain

Product Chain

  • What’s missing in the chain?


Chemical data

Chemical Data

  • CAS (American Chemical Society)

  • CAS Registry (American Chemical Society)

  • 30,442,688 Organic and inorganic substances

  • 244,539 Inventoried/regulated substances (over 50 new substances or additions to existing substances are added to the database each week)

  • 12,304,675 Commercially available chemicals

  • CAS Registry for Chemical Compounds (Humboldt State University)

  • Substance Registry System (US Environmental Protection Agency)


Food chemicals

Food Chemicals

  • About 6,000 chemicals, both synthetic and natural, are deliberately or inadvertently added to foods

  • Hundreds of thousands of chemicals – perhaps a million – are naturally present in foods

  • Coffee aroma alone consists of about 1,000 different chemicals

  • Relatively few chemicals that occur naturally in foods have been tested

  • Several natural carcinogens in widely consumed in ordinary foods

  • Caffeic acid, found in coffee and in apples, lettuce, peaches, pears, potatoes, tomatoes and citrus fruits, causes cancer in laboratory animals, but its role, if any, in human cancer is unknown

  • Chemicals in Food? A Panel of Experts Finds Little Danger (NY Times Feb 16, 1996)

  • Food Chemicals “may harm humans” (BBC)


Chemicals and food clemson university

Chemicals and Food (Clemson University)

  • Preservatives help to keep food fresh and prevent spoilage by controlling bacteria, mold, fungi, yeast or chemical changes

  • Nutrients maintain or improve the nutritional quality of food

  • vitamins and minerals are added to many common foods like milk, flour, cereal and margarine to make up for those likely to be lacking in a person’s diet or lost in food processing.

  • Processing aids make products more pleasing by improving the consistency, providing body, adding stability, helping oil and water mix, retaining moisture, or preventing lumping

  • Flavors complement, magnify or modify the taste and aroma of a food.

  • spices, flavor enhancers, natural and synthetic flavors and sweeteners

  • Colors give foods a desired, appetizing or characteristic color


Chemical effects on humans

Chemical Effects on Humans

  • Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety)

  • Compendium of data extracted from the open scientific literature

  • Data arranged in alphabetical order by prime chemical name

  • Six types of toxicity data are included in the file

  • primary irritation

  • mutagenic effects

  • reproductive effects

  • tumorigenic effects;

  • acute toxicity

  • other multiple dose toxicity

  • Specific numeric toxicity values such as LD50, LC50, TDLo, and TCLo are noted as well as species studied and route of administration used

  • No attempt has been made to evaluate the studies


Chemical overview product manufacture use and disposal

  • LD50 (abbreviation for “Lethal Dose, 50%”) Median lethal dose. Dose required to kill half the members of a tested population. LD50 figures are frequently used as a general indicator of a substance's acute toxicity

  • LC (Lethal Concentration) Concentration of a chemical in air and water that kills 50% of the test animals in a given time (usually four hours)

  • LDLo (Lethal Dose Low) is the lowest dosage per unit of bodyweight (typically stated in milligrams per kilogram) of a substance known to have resulted in fatality in a particular animal species When quoting an LDLo, the particular species and method of administration (e.g. ingested, inhaled, intravenous) are typically stated

  • TDLo the lowest dosage per unit of bodyweight of a substance known to have produced signs of toxicity in a particular animal species. When quoting a TDLo, the particular species and method of administration (e.g. ingested, inhaled, intravenous) are typically stated


Food drug administration

Food & Drug Administration


Occupational safety and health act of 1970

Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970

  • Created

  • National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety

  • In the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the US Department of Health and Human Services

  • NIOSH helps to assure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women by providing research, information, education, and training in the field of occupational safety and health

  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the US Department of Labor – responsible for developing and enforcing workplace safety and health regulations


Chemical products

Chemical Products

  • Chemical Industries Manufacturers Directory (Chemical Register) a comprehensive online reference database of suppliers of products and services used in the Chemical industries

  • Chemical Companies (Hoovers)

  • Nature of Chemical Manufacturing except pharmaceuticals and medicine (Bureau of Labor Statistics)

  • American Chemistry Council – trade association

  • Sourcewatch (Center for Media & Democracy)


Chemical companies

Chemical Companies

  • Standard Industrial Classification (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)

  • Division A: Agriculture, Forestry, And Fishing

  • Division B: Mining

  • Division C: Construction

  • Division D: Manufacturing

  • Division E: Transportation, Communications, Electric, Gas, and Sanitary Services

  • Division F: Wholesale Trade

  • Division G: Retail Trade

  • Division H: Finance, Insurance, And Real Estate

  • Division I: Services

  • Division J: Public Administration


Division d manufacturing major group 28 chemicals and allied products

Division D. Manufacturing. Major Group 28. Chemicals and Allied Products

  • Establishments producing basic chemicals and establishments manufacturing products by predominantly chemical processes

  • Basic chemicals - acids, alkalis, salts, and organic chemicals

  • Chemical products to be used in further manufacture - synthetic fibers, plastics materials, dry colors, pigments

  • Finished chemical products to be used for ultimate consumption - drugs, cosmetics, soaps

  • Finished chemical products to be used as materials or supplies in other industries - paints, food additives, fertilizers, and explosives


Agricultural chemicals

Agricultural Chemicals

  • Agricultural Chemicals and the Environment (Eds Hester R.E.; Harrison, R.M.)

  • Agricultural Chemicals (USGS)

  • Agricultural Chemicals and Production Technology (USDA Economic Research Service)

  • Agricultural Chemical Usage (USDA Economics, Statistics, and Market Information)

  • University of California, Weed Research Information Center, Chemical Manufacturer Links

  • USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program (USGS)

  • Mid-continent Agricultural Chemical Research Project (USGS)

  • Safe Practices and Agricultural Chemicals (Oregon Occupation and Safety Health Division)

  • 2006 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual


Us department of agriculture

US Department of Agriculture


Minnesota department of agriculture

Minnesota Department of Agriculture

  • Pesticide and Fertilizer Management Division

  • Dairy and Food Inspection Division

  • Agricultural Resources Management and Development Division

  • Pests and Weeds

  • Animals and Feed

  • Water and Land

  • Food and Beverage

  • Food Safety

  • Crops and Horticulture

  • Agricultural Chemical Emergency Response


Manufacturing major group 20 food

Manufacturing Major Group 20. Food

  • Establishments manufacturing or processing foods and beverages for human consumption, and certain related products, such as manufactured ice, chewing gum, vegetable and animal fats and oils, and prepared feeds for animals

  • Meat Products

  • Dairy Products

  • Canned, Frozen, And Preserved Fruits, Vegetables

  • Grain Mill Products

  • Bakery Products

  • Sugar And Confectionery Products

  • Fats And Oils

  • Beverages

  • Miscellaneous Food Preparations


Food chemicals1

Food Chemicals

  • About 6,000 chemicals, both synthetic and natural, are deliberately or inadvertently added to foods, whereas hundreds of thousands of chemicals -- perhaps a million -- are naturally present in foods

  • Coffee aroma alone consists of about 1,000 different chemicals

  • Relatively few chemicals that occur naturally in foods have been tested for their cancer-causing potential

  • Several natural carcinogens that are widely consumed in ordinary foods

  • Caffeic acid, found in coffee and in apples, lettuce, peaches, pears, potatoes, tomatoes and citrus fruits, causes cancer in laboratory animals, but its role, if any, in human cancer is unknown

  • Chemicals in Food? A Panel of Experts Finds Little Danger (NY Times Feb 16, 1996)


Food chemicals2

Food Chemicals

  • Food Chemical Codex (Institute of Medicine of the National Academies)

  • Compendium of standards that promote quality and safety of food additives such as preservatives, flavoring, coloring and nutrients, developed following passage of the 1958 Food Additives amendment to the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The accepted standard for defining the quality and purity of food chemicals – frequently referenced by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

  • Food Ingredients (Knovel.com)

  • Food Additives (Center for Science in the Public Interest)

  • Chemicals in Food and Water (Cornell University)

  • Recommendations for Submission of Chemical and Technological Data for Direct Food Additive Petitions (FDA)

  • Dietary Supplements (FDA)


Cosmetics toiletries

Cosmetics & Toiletries

  • Cosmetics & Toiletries (Knovel.com)

  • The term "cosmetic" means

  • articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance, and

  • articles intended for use as a component of any such articles; except that such term shall not include soap.

  • Food Drug and Cosmetic Act Sec. 201 (i)


Cosmetics toiletries1

Cosmetics & Toiletries

  • Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition

  • Cosmetics (CFSN)

  • Cosmetics and Personal Care Products (Environmental Working Group)

  • The Campaign for Safe Cosmetics

  • Think Before you Pink (Breast Cancer Action)

  • The Coalition for Consumer Information on Cosmetics (Humane Society of the United States)


Pharmaceuticals

Pharmaceuticals

  • Pharmaceuticals (Knovel.com)

  • Pharmaceutical Companies (Virtual Library)

  • Center for Drug Evaluation and Research

  • [email protected]

  • Drug Information (FDA)

  • National Institute on Drug Abuse

  • Drug Enforcement Administration

  • A free collection of articles about pharmaceutical drugs published in The New York Times


Division d manufacturing major group 28 chemicals and allied products sic industry group 283

Division D. Manufacturing. Major Group 28 Chemicals and Allied Products. SIC Industry Group 283

  • 2833 Medicinal Chemicals and Botanical Products

  • 2834 Pharmaceutical Preparations

  • 2835 In Vitro and In Vivo Diagnostic Substances

  • 2836 Biological Products, Except Diagnostic Substances


Chemical waste

Chemical Waste


Us environmental protection agency

US Environmental Protection Agency


Minnesota pollution control agency

Minnesota Pollution Control Agency


Chemical waste disposal

Chemical Waste Disposal

  • Hazardous Chemical Waste Management Guidebook (University of Minnesota)

  • Chemical Waste Disposal (Princeton University)

  • Household Chemical Waste Collections (Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County)

  • Minneapolis Hazardous Waste

  • Hazardous Waste (EPA)

  • EPA Office of Solid Waste

  • Hazardous Waste (OSHA)

  • Waste (MPCA)

  • Waste Lands: The Threat from Toxic Fertilizer (US P.I.R.G.)


Dakota county hazardous waste

Dakota County Hazardous Waste

  • Protecting the Environment

  • Hazardous Waste & Toxicity Reduction

  • Household Hazardous Waste

  • Hazardous Waste Ordinance

  • Businesses


Radioactive wastes

Radioactive Wastes

  • Radioactive Waste Disposal (EPA)

  • Radioactive Waste (US Nuclear Regulatory Council)

  • Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (US Department of Energy)

  • Nuclear Waste (Minnesota Environmental Quality Board)

  • RadWaste.org


Nonprofit sector

Nonprofit Sector

  • Union of Concerned Scientists

  • Center for Science in the Public Interest

  • Natural Resources Defense Council

  • Physicians for Social Responsibility

  • Public Interest Research Groups

  • Environmental Defense Fund

  • The Pollution Information Site


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