Caliphs of islamic empire
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Caliphs of Islamic Empire. Conquest, dynasties, and exansion. Caliph. “successor to Muhammad” Expanded territory of Islam. 1 st Caliph. Muhammad dies in 632 Followers chose successor Abu Bakr 1 st Caliph Daughter was one of Muhammad’s wives Friend of Muhammad. Arab Conquest.

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Caliphs of Islamic Empire

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Caliphs of islamic empire

Caliphs of Islamic Empire

Conquest, dynasties, and exansion


Caliph

Caliph

  • “successor to Muhammad”

  • Expanded territory of Islam


1 st caliph

1st Caliph

  • Muhammad dies in 632

  • Followers chose successor

  • Abu Bakr

    • 1st Caliph

    • Daughter was one of Muhammad’s wives

    • Friend of Muhammad


Arab conquest

Arab Conquest

  • Islamic movement grew much during Abu Bakr’s reign

  • Romans expanding Italy, Muslims expanding Arabia

  • Conquest encouraged by Quran

    • Jihad=defensive warfare


Next caliph

Next Caliph

  • Abu Bakr died

  • No clear successors

  • Umar A-Khattah was 2nd caliph

    • Assassinated

  • Uthmar was 3rd caliph

    • Assassinated


Umayyads

Umayyads

  • Civil war

  • Supporters of Abu Bakr vs. supporters of Muawwiyyah

  • Muaw becomes caliph

    • Known for his virtue

    • “I never use my sword when my whip will do, nor my whip when my tongue will do”

    • Made office of caliph hereditary

    • Moved capital from Medina to Damascus

  • Beginning of Umayyad dynasty


Umayyad dynasty

Umayyad Dynasty

  • Conquest

    • Conquered people along Mediterranean coast of northern Africa

    • Soldiers scene as ideal citizens

    • Those defeated kept land but paid rent to Muslims

    • Attempted attack on Constantinople to defeat Byzantine Empire

      • Muslims lost

      • Uneasiness would continue between 2 empires


Split in islam

Split in Islam

  • Revolt

  • Shiite Muslims

    • Muhammad appointed successor

      • 'Ali ibnAbiTalib, husband of the Prophet's daughter Fatimah

    • Believe in free will

  • Sunni Muslims

    • Follow hadiths (teachings to go along with Quran)

    • Believe Muhammad appointed no successor

      • Abu Bakr, father of the Prophet's favored wife, 'A'ishah (elected by people of Medina)

    • Believe human actions are controlled by Allah’s will

    • Majority in Muslim world today


Abbasid dynasty

Abbasid Dynasty

  • 750-Abu al-Abbas (descendant of Muhammad’s uncle) overthrew Umayyad dynasty

  • Built new capital city at Bagdad

  • All Muslims could hold both civil and military office

  • Haran al-Rashid

    • Best known of caliphs

    • “Golden Age of Abbasid dynasty”

    • Known for his charity

    • Supported artists and writers


Abbasid dynasty1

Abbasid Dynasty


Same problems

Same Problems

  • Fighting over successor

    • Harun al-Rashid’s sons fought to succeed him

    • Almost destroyed city of Bagdad

  • Vast wealth led to financial corruption

  • Shortage of qualified Arabs for key positions

    • Recruited Persians and Turks

  • Rulers of provinces broke away and formed independent dynasties


Seljuk turks

Seljuk Turks

  • Converted to Islam

  • Prospered as soldiers during Abbasid dynasty

  • Moved in on Arab empire

    • 1055 took over Bagdad

    • Sultan “holder of power”


Mongols

Mongols

  • Led by Genghis Khan

  • Advanced across Asia and Middle East

    • Destroyed everything in their path

    • Reached Red Sea

  • Eventually converted to Islam and intermarried with local peoples

  • End of great Arab Empire


Review

Review:

  • Another name for a successor of Muhammad is:

  • 1. Umayyad

  • 2. Mosque

  • 3. Caliph

  • 4. Shiite


Review1

Review:

  • What are the two major sects of Islam?

  • 1. Abbasid and Umayyad

  • 2. Sunni and Shiite

  • 3. Abu Bakr and Muaw

  • 4. Muhammadism and Muslim


Review2

Review:

  • Which Islamic Dynasty would have experienced a “golden age”? (Remember, a golden age is a time with great intellectual, artistic, and societal achievements –Athens during Pericles’ reign)

  • 1. Muhammad

  • 2. Umayyad

  • 3. Seljuk Turks

  • 4. Abbasid


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