PENNY LAB A Guide to Completing Your Scientific Method Booklet!. Introduction: The first set of slides will say what each page of the booklet needs;. The second set of slides will try to give examples . --They will have different backgrounds. Pg 2 = Prblm Stmnt, Rsrch, Hypoth.
A Guide to Completing Your Scientific Method Booklet!
The first set of slides will say what each page of the booklet needs;
The second set of slides will try to give examples.
--They will have different backgrounds.
Pg 2 = Prblm Stmnt,Rsrch, Hypoth
Pg 3 = Proce- dure
Pg 6 & 7 = Conclusion
Pg 5 = Analysis
Back Cover, pg 8 = “extra space”
Pg 4 = Data
Title– that relates to the lab
Due Date(to be determined)
Problem Statement = what you’re trying to figure out
RESEARCH = background info to understand the lab
At least 3 facts w/citations
Citation needs name of article and web link
because(briefly explain why)
If [I do this], then[this will happen]because[of this reasoning].
PROCEDURE always needs…
Safety what do we need to be careful with/about?
Operational Definition how will the dependent variable be measured?
Set-up Sketch toshow how equipment was set up for the lab
Clean up what do you have to do to clean up?
DATA & Collaboration
Data Tables one w/your data; one w/collaboration data from 3 other groups
Observations write down at least 2 things you noticed during the experiment
Sketch/es these can support your observations; 1 picture can be worth a 1000 words
ANALYSIS is all about…
Graphs made using your data and collaboration data
Inferences write down what you can figure out from your graphs
Collaboration ALWAYS include / write about your collaboration data as well as your own data!!
CONCLUSION…needs 2 pages!
Restate your problem question
Variables list what your variables and operational definition were
Explain Here’s where you show if your data proves or disproves your hypothesis; this is always worth a lot of points because this is where you show your THINKING and that you understood what you did
Sources of Error* what went wrong? What could you have done better or differently?
What’s Next?* What are you curious about now because of this experiment?
New & Cool* What are 2 new things you learned from this experiment? What are 2 cool things you did or learned from this experiment?
* at least 2!
The Back Cover
You can use this if you need more room for any of the other pages.
– OR – it can be the back cover!Have some fun and be creative, but never leave it blank!!
Next, are the sample pages.
Remember, you must DEFINE/explain the step, and then DO the step!
Partner: Harvey the Hawk
Due: Sept. 31, 2010
Research = background info
Copper has a hardness of 3.2-3.5; zinc has a hardness of 2.5; steel is 7
Source: Mohs scale of mineral hardness; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohs_scale_of_mineral_hardness
From 1793 – 1837, the penny was pure copper. For the next 20 years, the penny was bronze, which is copper, tin and zinc. From 1857 – 1863 the cent looked whitish because it was made of copper with 12% nickel. For the next 98 years (1864-1962!) the penny was again bronze, except for 1943. Because of the need for copper during WW II, the cent was zinc-coated steel in 1943. In 1962 the tin was removed from pennies, making them 95% copper and 5% zinc. In 1982 this was changed to 97.5% zinc and 2.5% copper
Source: The Composition of the Cent, http://www.usmint.gov/about_the_mint/fun_facts/?flash=yes&action=fun_facts2
Problem Statement = what I’m trying to figure out = How many drops fit on a penny?
because(briefly explain why)
My Hypothesis =
If pennies made of different metals have water dropped on them, thenharder pennies will hold less dropsbecausethe harder metals will make the water splash more.
Procedure many drops fit on a penny?
always has these 4 parts
Safety -- be careful about….
-- wear goggles
Operational Definition how the dependent variable is measured
number of drops will be one less than overflow
How the equipment was used
Clean up what needs to be done at the end of the lab Wipe down table
Return flasks & other equipment to back counter
Throw used paper towels into trash.
Data & Collaboration many drops fit on a penny?
Includes data tables, observations & sketches
My Group’s Data
I didn’t think water would pile up and make such a big mound on a penny!
The 3 pennies really looked different from each other
1943 1963 1984
(OK, so I “cheated” b/c this is PowerPoint and I used Google to find pictures instead of making sketches… )
Collaboration Graph many drops fit on a penny?
= graphs & inferences
My Group’s Graph
Both graphs show that the 1943 penny held the most drops, the 1984 held the second highest number of drops and the 1963 penny held the least amount of drops.
It can be inferred that the 1943 penny holds more water than the 1963 or 1984 pennies.
Conclusion – many drops fit on a penny?has many parts
Restate problem question
How many drops can fit on a penny?
Variables restate/list what variables and operational definition were
Independent = year of penny
Dependent = number of drops
Op Defn = one drop before overflow
Conclusion – many drops fit on a penny?con’t 1
Explain = show how data proves or disproves hypothesis
All the graphs show that the 1943 penny held the most drops. This data does not support the hypothesis because the 1943 is the hardest penny. It is steel. The research said zinc is a softer metal than copper and copper is softer than steel. I now understand that the “softness” of a metal does not seem to “cushion” the drops. Instead, all the data shows that the harder pennies held more drops.
Conclusion – many drops fit on a penny?con’t 2
Sources of Error what went wrong? What could you have done better or differently?
We had a hard time keeping the pipette at 2 cm.
Sometimes we jiggled the paper towel and the water spilled off the penny.
What’s Next? What are you curious about now because of this experiment?
What would it be like to compare silver dollars with nickels?
Would the tails sides have different results?
Conclusion – many drops fit on a penny?con’t 3
New & Cool at least 2 new things & 2 cool things you did or learned from this experiment
I learned that there’s a “method” to the scientific method and if you follow it, it’s pretty easy!
I learned that different metals affect how many drops a penny can hold.
I never knew pennies were bronze for almost 100 years.
I’m glad we got to decide which variable we wanted to use in our experiment.
Back Cover – many drops fit on a penny?can be used as extra room for any step, or as a back cover! Never leave it empty!