The Urinary System
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The Urinary System Kidneys are essential for life on land Fluid retention Salt (electrolyte) balance Excretion of toxic wastes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Urinary System Kidneys are essential for life on land Fluid retention Salt (electrolyte) balance Excretion of toxic wastes. Kidney is heavily vascularized Filtration Reabsorption Secretion 1000-2000L of blood flows through kidney About 180 L of filtrate produced

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The Urinary System Kidneys are essential for life on land Fluid retention Salt (electrolyte) balance Excretion of toxic wastes

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The Urinary System

Kidneys are essential for life on land

Fluid retention

Salt (electrolyte) balance

Excretion of toxic wastes


Kidney is heavily vascularized

Filtration

Reabsorption

Secretion

1000-2000L of blood flows through kidney

About 180 L of filtrate produced

1.5-2L of urine actually excreted


‘’


Glomerular filtration

Pores let water and small solutes through

Plasma proteins are excluded by size and charge

Filtrate is formed at a rapid rate

Regulation of filtration rate (GFR)


Renal autoregulation

to keep GFR constant, kidneys can

dilate or constrict blood vessels as

necessary

Reabsorption- water and solutes are

“put back” into the blood

Glucose and salts are reabsorbed in the

proximal tubule


Loop of Henle

Different parts of the loop are permeable to

different molecules

Osmolality of tubular fluid increases as loop

descends into medulla


Collecting duct has ADH receptors

Duct becomes more permeable to water

Water is drawn out of the tubule

Diabetes insipidus- kidneys do not respond

to ADH. Lots of urine is produced


Control of electrolyte and acid-base balance

by the kidney

Aldosterone- sodium reabsorption (and water

retention); potassium secretion

Aldosterone also stimulates the secretion of

hydrogen ions

Excessive potassium loss – hypokalemia

heart and nervous dysfunction


Acid-base regulation

Secretion of H+, reabsorption of bicarbonate

urine usually acidic

Alkalosis- H+ conserved, bicarb secreted

Acidosis- reverse

Also compensated by ventilation

Phosphates buffer urine


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