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Data from Document, Texts & Audio/Video. Qualitative Research Methods. Data From Documents. Defining Document : umbrella term referring to a wide range of written, visual, digital and physical material relevant to the study at hand. Data From Documents. Defining

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Data from document texts audio video

Data from Document, Texts & Audio/Video

Qualitative Research Methods


Data from documents

Data From Documents

  • Defining

    Document: umbrella term referring to a wide range of written, visual, digital and physical material relevant to the study at hand


Data from documents1

Data From Documents

  • Defining

    Artifacts: “things” or objects in the environment that represent some form of communication


Data from documents2

Data From Documents

  • What are documents?

    Official recordsLetters

    Newspapers accountsPoems

    Gov’t accountsSongs

    Corporate recordsDiaries

    Historical accountsPhotos

    AutobiographiesFilms

    Etc.


Data from documents3

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Public Records:

  • The official ongoing record of a society’s activities

  • Presume that if an event happened, some record of it exists somewhere


Data from documents4

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Public Records:

    Includes: records of births, deaths, marriages

    Police recordsProgram docs

    Court transcriptsMass media

    Agency recordsPublic notices

    Association manualsEtc.


Data from documents5

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Public Records:

  • Paper trails can provide valuable information and be a stimulus for additional paths of inquiry

    - Routine records- Memos

    - Correspondences- Charts

    - Financial records- Bulletin boards

    - Org. rules/regulations


Data from documents6

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Public Records:

  • Includes previous studies and data banks

    - relying on other’s work/interpretations of the data

    i.e., Human Relations Area Files

    http://www.yale.edu/hraf/index.html


Data from documents7

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Personal Documents:

  • Any first-person narrative that describes an individual’s actions, experiences and beliefs

    LettersDiaries

    ScrapbooksGrowth Charts

    CalendarsTravel logs

    Etc.


Data from documents8

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Personal Documents:

  • Reliable source of data concerning a person’s attitudes, beliefs and view of the world

    - highly subjective

    - only reflect the participant’s perspective


Data from documents9

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Personal Documents:

  • Things to consider:

    1. Is the material trustworthy?

    2. Is the material atypical?

    3. Has the material been edited/refined?

    4. Does the material only contain highlights of life that are considered interesting?

    5. Keep in mind that only certain types of people keep autobiographies and/or diaries.


Data from documents10

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Personal Documents:

  • Studies using only personal documents:

    Abramson (1992) case study of Russian Jewish emigration

    Thomas & Znaniecki (1927) Polish immigrant life


Data from documents11

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Popular Culture Documents:

  • Materials designed to entertain, inform, and persuade the public

  • Can be categorized as public record


Data from documents12

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Popular Culture Documents:

  • Includes popular media forms:

    TelevisionFilm

    RadioNewspaper

    Literary worksPhotography

    CartoonsInternet

    Etc.


Data from documents13

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Popular Culture Documents:

  • Materials designed to entertain, inform, and persuade the public

  • Can be categorized as public record


Data from documents14

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Popular Culture Documents:

  • Materials designed to entertain, inform, and persuade the public

  • Can be categorized as public record


Data from documents15

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Popular Culture Documents:

  • Includes popular media forms:

    TelevisionFilm

    RadioNewspaper

    Literary worksPhotography

    CartoonsInternet

    Etc.


Data from documents16

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Popular Culture Documents:

  • Materials designed to entertain, inform, and persuade the public

  • Can be categorized as public record

    TVRadioMagazines

    FilmInternetNewspapers

    PhotosCartoonsEtc.


Data from documents17

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Popular Culture Documents:

  • Mass communication materials are good for tracking certain cultural changes and trends

    i.e., ageism in cartoons, U.S. presidential debates, teenage culture in movies

  • Focus on one event/program


Data from documents18

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Popular Culture Documents:

  • Mass communication materials are good for tracking certain cultural changes and trends

    i.e., ageism in cartoons, U.S. presidential debates, teenage culture in movies

  • Focus on one event/program


Data from documents19

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Visual Documents:

  • Growing interest on the use of and analyzing of visual data

  • Can be classified as the other types of documents mentioned


Data from documents20

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Visual Documents:

  • Film and photography has been used in anthropological studies since the early 1900s

    1. Gained wide use in the 1990s

    2. Captures events/activities as they happen

    3. Only limited by what you can imagine and what the camera can capture


Data from documents21

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Visual Documents:

  • Film and photography

    4. Can be costly and intrusive

    5. Can use what already exists or create new


Data from documents22

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Physical Material/Artifacts:

  • Physical objects found within the study setting

    i.e., The UA garbage study

    Physical Trace: changes in the physical setting brought about by activities of people in that setting

    i.e., Children’s interest in Christmas and Racial attitudes on campus, libraries and reading habits


Data from documents23

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Physical Material/Artifacts:

    Advantages:

    1. Record the results of actual behavior

    2. Usually nonreactive and unobtrusive

    - applied after behavior has occurred

    3. Ubiquitous and readily available

    4. Usually applied to inanimate objects


Data from documents24

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Physical Material/Artifacts:

    Advantages:

    5. Interrelated behaviors can be studied at once

    6. Can be used over long periods

    - minimal inconvenience and expense


Data from documents25

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    The Internet:

    1.Provides numerous references

    - widens the scope of data available

    2. Supports interaction between groups of people via various CMC

    3. Not everyone has access to a computer


Data from documents26

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    The Internet:

  • The quantity of information is no guarantee for comprehensiveness/substance

    5.Each form of CMC has its own impact on the information it transmits/is received

    6.Writing skills and computer literacy impact group interaction


Data from documents27

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    The Internet:

  • Discrepancies between real and online personalities

  • Here today, gone tomorrow

    ****Results are strongly influenced by the characteristics of the data revealed, concealed, or altered because the CMC


Data from documents28

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Researcher-Generated Documents:

  • Documents prepared by the researcher or for the researcher by participants after the study has begun

  • Provides insight into the situation, person, or event being studied


Data from documents29

Data From Documents

  • Types of Documents

    Researcher-Generated Documents:

  • Includes:

    DiariesLogs

    Life historiesPhotos

    Quantitative dataEtc.


Data from documents30

Data From Documents

  • Using Document in Qual Research

  • Not much different than using any other kind of data

    - Data collection is guided by questions, educated hunches, and emerging findings


Data from documents31

Data From Documents

  • Using Document in Qual Research

  • Researcher must keep an open mind

    - Possibilities are limitless

  • The authenticity of documents must be verified before use

    - Also the condition in which it was produced should be discovered


Data from documents32

Data From Documents

  • Using Document in Qual Research

    Questions to consider:

  • What is the history of the document?

  • How was it acquired by the researcher?

  • Is there any guarantee with the document?

  • Has it been tampered with or altered?

  • Under what circumstances and for what purposes was it produced?


Data from documents33

Data From Documents

  • Using Document in Qual Research

    Questions to consider:

  • Who’s the author? What were they trying to accomplish with the document?

  • What were the author’s sources of information?

    - eyewitness acct- reconstruction

    -secondhand acct- interpretation


Data from documents34

Data From Documents

  • Using Document in Qual Research

    Questions to consider:

  • What was/is the author’s bias?

  • To what extent was the writer likely to want to tell the truth?

  • Do other documents exist that might shed additional light on the subject? If so, who has them/where are they?

  • Primary or secondary source?


Data from documents35

Data From Documents

  • Using Document in Qual Research

  • A coding and or cataloging system must be developed by the researcher

    - copy written documents if possible

    - photograph or videotape artifacts

    - qualitative content analysis


Data from documents36

Data From Documents

  • Strengths and Limitations

    Limitations:

    1.Documents are not typically developed for research

    - may be incomplete

    - may not be in a form that makes sense to the researcher

    2. Authenticity must be confirmed


Data from documents37

Data From Documents

  • Strengths and Limitations

    Strengths:

  • May be the best source of data on a particular topic

  • Can be used in the same manner as interviews or observations

    - descriptions- verify emerging hypothesis

    - advance new hypothesis/categories

    - offer historical understanding- track changes


Data from documents38

Data From Documents

  • Strengths and Limitations

    Strengths:

    3. Stable

    4. More objective than other types of data

    5. Unobtrusive


Data from documents39

Data From Documents

Using video for research blog:

  • http://www.methodspace.com/profiles/blogs/using-video-for-research


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