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Data from Document, Texts & Audio/Video. Qualitative Research Methods. Data From Documents. Defining Document : umbrella term referring to a wide range of written, visual, digital and physical material relevant to the study at hand. Data From Documents. Defining

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data from document texts audio video

Data from Document, Texts & Audio/Video

Qualitative Research Methods

data from documents
Data From Documents
  • Defining

Document: umbrella term referring to a wide range of written, visual, digital and physical material relevant to the study at hand

data from documents1
Data From Documents
  • Defining

Artifacts: “things” or objects in the environment that represent some form of communication

data from documents2
Data From Documents
  • What are documents?

Official records Letters

Newspapers accounts Poems

Gov’t accounts Songs

Corporate records Diaries

Historical accounts Photos

Autobiographies Films

Etc.

data from documents3
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Public Records:

  • The official ongoing record of a society’s activities
  • Presume that if an event happened, some record of it exists somewhere
data from documents4
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Public Records:

Includes: records of births, deaths, marriages

Police records Program docs

Court transcripts Mass media

Agency records Public notices

Association manuals Etc.

data from documents5
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Public Records:

  • Paper trails can provide valuable information and be a stimulus for additional paths of inquiry

- Routine records - Memos

- Correspondences - Charts

- Financial records - Bulletin boards

- Org. rules/regulations

data from documents6
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Public Records:

  • Includes previous studies and data banks

- relying on other’s work/interpretations of the data

i.e., Human Relations Area Files

http://www.yale.edu/hraf/index.html

data from documents7
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Personal Documents:

  • Any first-person narrative that describes an individual’s actions, experiences and beliefs

Letters Diaries

Scrapbooks Growth Charts

Calendars Travel logs

Etc.

data from documents8
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Personal Documents:

  • Reliable source of data concerning a person’s attitudes, beliefs and view of the world

- highly subjective

- only reflect the participant’s perspective

data from documents9
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Personal Documents:

  • Things to consider:

1. Is the material trustworthy?

2. Is the material atypical?

3. Has the material been edited/refined?

4. Does the material only contain highlights of life that are considered interesting?

5. Keep in mind that only certain types of people keep autobiographies and/or diaries.

data from documents10
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Personal Documents:

  • Studies using only personal documents:

Abramson (1992) case study of Russian Jewish emigration

Thomas & Znaniecki (1927) Polish immigrant life

data from documents11
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Popular Culture Documents:

  • Materials designed to entertain, inform, and persuade the public
  • Can be categorized as public record
data from documents12
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Popular Culture Documents:

  • Includes popular media forms:

Television Film

Radio Newspaper

Literary works Photography

Cartoons Internet

Etc.

data from documents13
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Popular Culture Documents:

  • Materials designed to entertain, inform, and persuade the public
  • Can be categorized as public record
data from documents14
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Popular Culture Documents:

  • Materials designed to entertain, inform, and persuade the public
  • Can be categorized as public record
data from documents15
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Popular Culture Documents:

  • Includes popular media forms:

Television Film

Radio Newspaper

Literary works Photography

Cartoons Internet

Etc.

data from documents16
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Popular Culture Documents:

  • Materials designed to entertain, inform, and persuade the public
  • Can be categorized as public record

TV Radio Magazines

Film Internet Newspapers

Photos Cartoons Etc.

data from documents17
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Popular Culture Documents:

  • Mass communication materials are good for tracking certain cultural changes and trends

i.e., ageism in cartoons, U.S. presidential debates, teenage culture in movies

  • Focus on one event/program
data from documents18
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Popular Culture Documents:

  • Mass communication materials are good for tracking certain cultural changes and trends

i.e., ageism in cartoons, U.S. presidential debates, teenage culture in movies

  • Focus on one event/program
data from documents19
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Visual Documents:

  • Growing interest on the use of and analyzing of visual data
  • Can be classified as the other types of documents mentioned
data from documents20
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Visual Documents:

  • Film and photography has been used in anthropological studies since the early 1900s

1. Gained wide use in the 1990s

2. Captures events/activities as they happen

3. Only limited by what you can imagine and what the camera can capture

data from documents21
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Visual Documents:

  • Film and photography

4. Can be costly and intrusive

5. Can use what already exists or create new

data from documents22
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Physical Material/Artifacts:

  • Physical objects found within the study setting

i.e., The UA garbage study

Physical Trace: changes in the physical setting brought about by activities of people in that setting

i.e., Children’s interest in Christmas and Racial attitudes on campus, libraries and reading habits

data from documents23
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Physical Material/Artifacts:

Advantages:

1. Record the results of actual behavior

2. Usually nonreactive and unobtrusive

- applied after behavior has occurred

3. Ubiquitous and readily available

4. Usually applied to inanimate objects

data from documents24
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Physical Material/Artifacts:

Advantages:

5. Interrelated behaviors can be studied at once

6. Can be used over long periods

- minimal inconvenience and expense

data from documents25
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

The Internet:

1. Provides numerous references

- widens the scope of data available

2. Supports interaction between groups of people via various CMC

3. Not everyone has access to a computer

data from documents26
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

The Internet:

  • The quantity of information is no guarantee for comprehensiveness/substance

5. Each form of CMC has its own impact on the information it transmits/is received

6. Writing skills and computer literacy impact group interaction

data from documents27
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

The Internet:

  • Discrepancies between real and online personalities
  • Here today, gone tomorrow

****Results are strongly influenced by the characteristics of the data revealed, concealed, or altered because the CMC

data from documents28
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Researcher-Generated Documents:

  • Documents prepared by the researcher or for the researcher by participants after the study has begun
  • Provides insight into the situation, person, or event being studied
data from documents29
Data From Documents
  • Types of Documents

Researcher-Generated Documents:

  • Includes:

Diaries Logs

Life histories Photos

Quantitative data Etc.

data from documents30
Data From Documents
  • Using Document in Qual Research
  • Not much different than using any other kind of data

- Data collection is guided by questions, educated hunches, and emerging findings

data from documents31
Data From Documents
  • Using Document in Qual Research
  • Researcher must keep an open mind

- Possibilities are limitless

  • The authenticity of documents must be verified before use

- Also the condition in which it was produced should be discovered

data from documents32
Data From Documents
  • Using Document in Qual Research

Questions to consider:

  • What is the history of the document?
  • How was it acquired by the researcher?
  • Is there any guarantee with the document?
  • Has it been tampered with or altered?
  • Under what circumstances and for what purposes was it produced?
data from documents33
Data From Documents
  • Using Document in Qual Research

Questions to consider:

  • Who’s the author? What were they trying to accomplish with the document?
  • What were the author’s sources of information?

- eyewitness acct - reconstruction

-secondhand acct - interpretation

data from documents34
Data From Documents
  • Using Document in Qual Research

Questions to consider:

  • What was/is the author’s bias?
  • To what extent was the writer likely to want to tell the truth?
  • Do other documents exist that might shed additional light on the subject? If so, who has them/where are they?
  • Primary or secondary source?
data from documents35
Data From Documents
  • Using Document in Qual Research
  • A coding and or cataloging system must be developed by the researcher

- copy written documents if possible

- photograph or videotape artifacts

- qualitative content analysis

data from documents36
Data From Documents
  • Strengths and Limitations

Limitations:

1.Documents are not typically developed for research

- may be incomplete

- may not be in a form that makes sense to the researcher

2. Authenticity must be confirmed

data from documents37
Data From Documents
  • Strengths and Limitations

Strengths:

  • May be the best source of data on a particular topic
  • Can be used in the same manner as interviews or observations

- descriptions - verify emerging hypothesis

- advance new hypothesis/categories

- offer historical understanding - track changes

data from documents38
Data From Documents
  • Strengths and Limitations

Strengths:

3. Stable

4. More objective than other types of data

5. Unobtrusive

data from documents39
Data From Documents

Using video for research blog:

  • http://www.methodspace.com/profiles/blogs/using-video-for-research
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