Post world war i nationalism
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 45

Post World War I Nationalism PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 101 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Post World War I Nationalism. AP World History. Japan. China. Soviet Union. Post World War I Nationalism. Italy. Germany. India. Important Events. Diplomacy. Leader(s). People. Economy. Military. Italy. Leader(s) – Benito Mussolini. Working class family background

Download Presentation

Post World War I Nationalism

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Post world war i nationalism

Post World War INationalism

AP World History


Post world war i nationalism

Japan

China

Soviet Union

Post World War I

Nationalism

Italy

Germany

India


Post world war i nationalism

Important

Events

Diplomacy

Leader(s)

People

Economy

Military


Italy

Italy


Leader s benito mussolini

Leader(s) – Benito Mussolini

  • Working class family background

  • Early socialist, but switched

  • Formed Fasci di Combattimento party (Fascists)

  • Defended private property and class structure & prevented a communist revolution

  • Promised work & benefits

  • Blackshirts – Mussolini’s followers

  • Appointed prime minister &

  • Ended democratic rule & bans non-Fascist parties establishes a corporate state

  • Wanted to recapture the greatness & glory of the Roman Empire

  • Called himself El Duce


Important events

Important Events

  • 1920 – strikes in Lombardy and Piedmont (Mussolini supported)

  • 1922 – Fascists march on Rome & Mussolini appointed Prime Minister

  • 1924 – Fascists win a majority of seats in parliament

  • 1936 – Rome-Berlin Axis is signed


People

People

  • Post WW I – dissatisfied with Treaty of Versailles

  • Veterans, workers, and peasants unhappy

  • 1920 - Peasants seize land

  • Middle and upper classes feared a communist revolution

  • Many Italians opposed fascism, but most supported Mussolini


Diplomacy

Diplomacy

  • Italy invades Ethiopia in 1935

  • Mussolini wants to enhance Italy’s image as a world power

  • League of Nations imposes sanctions, but they do not work

  • 1936 – Rome-Berlin Axis


Economy

Economy

  • Economic downturn after WW I

  • Strikes, inflation, shortages of coal

  • Mussolini solved unemployment problem


Military

Military

  • WW I veterans could not find work

  • Built up Italy’s armed forces

  • Army invaded Ethiopia in 1935


Germany

Germany


Leader s adolf hitler

Leader(s) – Adolf Hitler

  • Austrian born

  • World War I veteran

  • Member of the National Socialist Workers’ Party

  • Led the Brownshirts

  • 1923 - Staged the “Beer Hall Putsch” – failed

  • Wrote Mein Kampf

  • Blamed Jews & Communists for losing war

  • Appealed to German’s sense of history

  • Becomes Chancellor in 1933

  • Attacks Jews

  • Takes title of der Führer

  • Restores Germany’s military might

  • Ignored Versailles Treaty

  • Organizes Nazi youth movement


Important events1

Important Events

  • 1919 – Germans elect an assembly which establishes a democratic republic called the Weimar Republic

  • 1923 – Ruhr Valley occupied by French troops & Beer Hall Putsch

  • 1929 – Great Depression in Germany

  • 1933 – Hitler becomes chancellor & Reichstag fire

  • 1934 – Purge of the Brownshirts

  • 1935 – Nuremburg Laws enacted

  • 1936 – Hitler and Mussolini sign the Berlin-Rome Axis

  • 1938 – Kristallnacht

  • 1938 - Austria is annexed – “One blood demands one Reich”

  • 1938 – Hitler demands and receives the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia (appeasement) at the Munich Conference


People1

People

  • Blamed Weimar leaders for signing the Versailles Treaty

  • Widespread opposition to Weimar Leaders

  • Brownshirts – private army of veterans and street thugs

  • Hitler appealed to workers and industrialists

  • Political parties banned by Nazis

  • Labor unions taken over by Nazis

  • Churches controlled and clergy silenced

  • Jews – stripped of citizenship and right to hold office; barred from schools and destroyed business


Diplomacy1

Diplomacy

  • France - occupies the industrial Ruhr Valley

  • U.S. – provides loans to Germany – helps free Germany of debt

  • Adolf Hitler supports General Francisco Franco of the Spanish Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War (1936-39) he wanted Spanish iron ore and magnesium; prevent spread of communism; test new weapons and military tactics (blitzkrieg)


Economy1

Economy

  • Allies set reparations at $35 billion

  • 1922 – Germany says it can not pay (industrial Ruhr Valley is occupied)

  • Inflation soared

  • Savings of Germans wiped out

  • Mid-1920s – France reaches compromise with Germany

  • U.S provides loans – Germany has 5-year period of prosperity

  • Great Depression (begins in 1929) – unemployment, etc.


Military1

Military

  • Treaty of Versailles limited the size of the Germany army

  • Hitler sought to restore Germany’s military might

  • German factories begin turning out guns, ammunition, airplanes, tanks, etc.

  • Government stresses importance of a strong military


Japan

Japan


Leader s

Leader(s)

  • Emperor Hirohito – constitutional monarch

  • Influential military leaders – opposed to democratic reforms


Important events2

Important Events

  • 1915 – Japan forces China to sign the Twenty-One Demands (eventually abandoned)

  • 1922- disarmament conference/ Japan becomes 3rd most powerful navy

  • 1923 – earthquake in Tokyo-Yokohama area

  • 1924 – U.S. bans Japanese immigration

  • 1925 – universal male suffrage

  • 1931 – invades Manchuria

  • 1937 – war with China begins

  • 1941 – attack on Pearl Harbor


Diplomacy2

Diplomacy

  • Twenty-One Demands makes China Japanese protectorate

  • Disarmament conference in Washington benefits Japan

  • Japanese army invades Manchuria

  • War with China (after Marco Polo Bridge clash)

  • Attack on Pearl Harbor, Singapore, and Dutch East Indies in 1941


People2

People

  • 1872-1925 - population explosion from 35 million to 60 million

  • 1930s – militarism influences all aspects of Japanese life

  • Many democratically minded Japanese hoped Emperor would stop militarism

  • Working and middle class grows

  • Military dress was appealing

  • Universal male suffrage


Economy2

Economy

  • Most of the Japanese economy was in hands of ziabatsu

  • Challenges of population density

  • World wide depression devastated silk factories and other industries

  • Tokyo-Yokohama earthquake affects economy

  • Land was scarce

  • Very few resources (especially iron ore, coal, and oil)


Military2

Military

  • Army leaders decide to invade NE China (after Mukden Incident)

  • Government could not control army

  • 1932 – assassinates a prime minister of Japan


India

India


Leader s1

Leader(s)

  • Jawaharlal Nehru - led the Hindus

  • Mohammed Ali Jinnah - led the Muslims

  • Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi - middle class background; pacifist who believed in civil disobedience

  • Indian National Congress & Muslim League – nationalist organizations that lead India to independence


Important events3

Important Events

  • 1914 – Gandhi leaves South Africa for India

  • 1919 – Britain imposes harsh laws on India to stifle opposition

  • 1919 - Amritsar massacre

  • 1922 - British arrest Gandhi

  • 1930 - 200 mile march to the sea by Gandhi to protest the salt tax

  • 1935 - British parliament passes the Government of India Act – limited self rule for India


Diplomacy3

Diplomacy

  • India had no control over diplomacy until they achieved independence in 1948


People3

People

  • Were urged to reject Western civilization (used brute force, worship of money, & prejudice) by Gandhi

  • Called Gandhi Mahatma or “great soul”

  • Boycotted British goods

  • Shocked by brutal massacre at Amritsar

  • Hindu-Muslim tension and conflict intensifies as India moves toward independence

  • Nationalists supported Britain in WW I, but eventually want complete independence for India

  • Some Indian’s want to remain in the British empire, but desire home-rule


Economy3

Economy

  • Wheat from India fed Allied soldiers in WW I

  • Indian cotton clothed Allied troops

  • 1935 – agricultural put under provincial government’s control


Military3

Military

  • Indian soldiers fought for the British in World War I (Middle East & Africa)


China

China


Leader s2

Leader(s)

  • Sun Yat-sen – declares China a republic in 1912

  • Yuan Shigai – ousts Sun Yat-sen in 1914 and establishes a dictatorship

  • Chiag Kai-shek – officer in the Kuomintang Army that defeats the warlords in 1928 and establishes a government in Nanjing

  • Mao Zedong – leader who leads the 100,000 communist troops on the Long March


Important events4

Important Events

  • 1912 – Chinese republic declared

  • 1914 – Sun Yat-sen ousted

  • 1923 – Chiang kai-shek grows in power

  • 1925 – Sun Yat-sen dies

  • 1927 – communists fail to take over Kuomintang; Chiang purges them

  • 1931 – Japan invades Manchuria

  • 1934-35 – Long March (100,000 communists troops to 8,000)


Diplomacy4

Diplomacy

  • Versailles Treaty granted Shandong Peninsula to Japan – was humiliating and surprising to China

  • Japan invades in 1931 and controls most of eastern China by 1939


People4

People

  • Shocked by Versailles Treaty

  • Peasants supported communists because they overthrew local landlords and redistributed their land to peasants


Economy4

Economy

  • Agriculturally based economy with millions of peasants


Military4

Military

  • Warlords (military leaders) divided China amongst themselves in 1916 – civil war followed

  • Kuomintang Army battled Red Army in 1930s for control of China

  • Long March – retreat of communists

  • Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist’s forces and the Communist forces suspended their conflict with each other in order to concentrate on fighting the Japanese


Soviet union

Soviet Union


Leader s3

Leader(s)

  • Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) – Bolshevik leader; suffered a stroke in 1922

  • Leon Trotsky – most important person in the communist party after Lenin; built the Red Army into an effective fighting force; believed in a world wide revolution; exiled to Siberia (and then expelled) by Stalin; assassinated in Mexico City

  • Joseph Stalin – skilled administrator; rose to general secretary of the Communist party; outmaneuvered Trotsky after Lenin’s death; believed in Soviet Union first in terms of revolution; had Trotsky murdered


Important events5

Important Events

  • 1919 – Comintern established

  • 1921 – Lenin announces New Economic Policy (NEP)

  • 1922 – Official name changes to Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), new constitution written, and Lenin suffers two strokes

  • 1924 – Lenin dies

  • 1928 – Stalin declares end to NEP, announces Five Year Plans and collectivization

  • 1930s – series of purges by Stalin

  • Stalin seizes Ukraine’s grain results in death of millions

  • 1934 – Socialist realism art instituted

  • 1943 – Comintern dissolved


Diplomacy5

Diplomacy

  • Comintern established to encourage Communist parties in other countries to overthrow their governments by legal or illegal means


People5

People

  • 27 million died in WW I, revolution, and civil war

  • Leadership of the communist party controlled the workers (was supposed to be the other way around)

  • Private businesses, small manufacturers and farmers allowed to operate under NEP

  • Peasant majority (farmers) were fiercely anticommunist – had prospered under NEP

  • Kulaks (prosperous peasants) – opposed collectivization

  • Millions of communist party members were expelled and sent to labor camps (purges)

  • Non-Russian nationalities suffered; Russians dominated Soviet Union

  • Thousands of peasants were killed when opposing collectivization; millions in the Ukraine starved


Economy5

Economy

  • NEP – major industries under government control; small businesses allowed to operate

  • Five Year Plans – success in spurring industrial growth

  • Collectivization produced terrible results – opposition and starvation; Soviet union unable to feed its population


Military5

Military

  • Military leadership suffered as a result of purges – would take them years to recover


  • Login