Chapter 3. Organic Conductor
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Chapter 3. Organic Conductor. Conductivity Of Organic Materials. Conductivity s = en m. n: number of carriers; m: mobility of the carriers. Electronic structures of Organic Molecules Core electrons. s electrons, localized between two atoms.

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Conductivity

Of Organic Materials


Conductivity s = enm

n: number of carriers; m: mobility of the carriers


  • Electronic structures of Organic Molecules

  • Core electrons.

  • s electrons, localized between two atoms.

  • n electrons, located at a particular heteroatom, usually have high orbital energy and could be promoted easily.

  • p electrons, delocalized over an array of atoms, usually have high MO energy and could be promoted easily.



Phthalocyanine channel

Conductivity is controlled by the phthalocyanine ring.

The metal core does not interfere the conductivity.

I-


Chain length:

Si:12030

Ge: 7440

Sn:10040




(1) Could a charge through delocalize through the p array?

(2) Is there any one dimensional conductor in principle?

(3) How a charge hop from one p array to another adjacent p array?


Electrical conductivity of polyacetylene

Cis-PA s = 1.7 x 10-9 S/cm

Trans-PA s = 4.4 x 10-5 S/cm

I2 dopeds = 5.5 x 102 S/cm

AsF5 dopeds = 1.2 x 103 S/cm

Electrochemical

Oxidations = 1 x 103 S/cm

Li doped s = 2 x 102 S/cm

Na doped s = 101-10-2 S/cm



Drawbacks:

low solubility.

Alkyl side chain for enhancing solubility



Synthesis of Polythiophenes becomes metallic after doped

PEDOT.PSS


Polyaniline (PANI) becomes metallic after doped

Insulator

Conductor


Preparation becomes metallic after doped


Doping and Undoping becomes metallic after doped

PANI doped with H3PO4 was found to be most stable.



Poly-4-phenylene-(E)-vinylene (PPV) becomes metallic after doped

Precursor for thin film formation

Highly insoluble


Hsieh, B. R. (Xerox) becomes metallic after doped

Knoevenagel Condensation

Wittig Horner reaction


Lithium Battery becomes metallic after doped


Oxidation becomes metallic after doped

(CH)x+xy(ClO4-)

[(CH)+y(ClO4-)y]x + xye-

Reduction

(CH)x+xy(Li+) + xye-

[(CH)-y(Li+)y]x

Rechargeable Battery

With PA electrode


  • Battery Structures based on PA becomes metallic after doped

  • P type (CH)x anode/Li cathode

  • P type (CH)x anode/n type (CH)x cathode

  • n type (CH)x anode /Li cathode

When the battery is doped at 6%, the

Voltages are 3.7, 2.5, 1.2V respectively


Rechargeable Battery becomes metallic after doped

with poly-4-phenylene electrode


Organic Photoconductors becomes metallic after doped



  • Organic Photoconductors becomes metallic after doped

  • Conjugated polymers

  • Polymers containing aromatic side-chains

  • Small molecules


Organic Solar Cell becomes metallic after doped


Organic Solar Cell becomes metallic after doped


Example becomes metallic after doped



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