UNICEF Global Study of Child Poverty & Disparities Measuring Child Poverty for Policy Purposes Shailen Nandy School for Policy Studies University of Bristol United Kingdom www.bristol.ac.uk/poverty CEE/CIS Regional Social Policy Workshop Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 2 nd – 4 th April 2008.
Measuring Child Poverty for Policy Purposes
School for Policy Studies
University of Bristol
CEE/CIS Regional Social Policy Workshop
Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 2nd– 4th April 2008
After the World Summit on Social Development in Copenhagen in 1995, 117 countries adopted a declaration and programme of action which included commitments to eradicate “absolute” and reduce “overall” poverty.
Absolute poverty was defined as "a condition characterised by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information. It depends not only on income but also on access to services." (UN, 1995)
Official Definition of Poverty of the World Bank, IMF, UNDP and all other UN Organisations
“Fundamentally, poverty is a denial of choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity. It means lack of basic capacity to participate effectively in society. It means not having enough to feed and clothe a family, not having a school or clinic to go to, not having the land on which to grow one’s food or a job to earn one’s living, not having access to credit. It means insecurity, powerlessness and exclusion of individuals, households and communities. It means susceptibility to violence, and it often implies living on marginal or fragile environments, without access to clean water or sanitation”
UN General Assembly Definition of Child Poverty, and all other UN Organisations
10th January 2007
“Children living in poverty are deprived of nutrition, water and sanitation facilities, access to basic health care services, shelter, education, participation and protection, and that while a severe lack of goods and services hurts every human being, it is most threatening and harmful to children, leaving them unable to enjoy their rights, to reach their full potential and to participate as full members of the society”
Measuring Absolute Child Poverty and all other UN Organisations
The Bristol Approach
Deprivation can be conceptualised as a continuum which ranges from no deprivation through mild, moderate and severe deprivation to extreme deprivation.
Continuum of deprivation
In order to measure absolute poverty amongst children, it is necessary to define the threshold measures of severe deprivation of basic human need for:
Definitions for ‘less severe’ deprivation of basic needs Need for Children
1. Shelter -less severe: Children living in dwellings with 4 or more people per room or living in a house with no flooring (i.e. a mud floor) or inadequate roofing.
2. Sanitation facilities - less severe: Children using unimproved sanitation facilities. Unimproved sanitation facilities are: pour flush latrines; covered pit latrines; open pit latrines; and buckets.
3. Safe drinking water - less severe: Children using water from an unimproved source such as open wells, open springs or surface water or who it takes 30 minutes or longer to collect water (walk to the water, collect it and return).
4. Information - less severe: Children (aged 3-17 years) and adults with no access to a radio or television (i.e. broadcast media).
5. Food - less severe: Children who are more than two standard deviations below the international reference population for stunting (height for age) or wasting (height for weight) or underweight (weight for age).
6. Education - less severe: Children (aged 7-17) of schooling age not currently attending school or who did not complete their primary education.
7. Health - less severe: Children who have not been immunised by 2 years of age. If the child has not received eight of the following vaccinations they are defined as deprived: bcg, dpt1, dpt2, dpt3, polio0, polio1, polio2, polio3, measles or did not receive treatment for a recent illness involving an acute respiratory infection or diarrhoea.
Percent of the world’s children severely deprived of basic human needs (2003 report)
Press coverage, State of the World’s Children Report 2005 human needs (2003 report)