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Organizational Notes. no study guide no review session not sufficient to just read book and glance at lecture material midterm/final is considered hard by some students questions will relate to both book and lecture material . What is Cognitive Science?.

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Organizational notes
Organizational Notes

  • no study guide

  • no review session

  • not sufficient to just read book and glance at lecture material

  • midterm/final is considered hard by some students

  • questions will relate to both book and lecture material


What is cognitive science
What is Cognitive Science?

… is the interdisciplinary study of mind and intelligence, embracing philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology

(Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/cognitive-science/


Practical value
Practical Value

  • Education:

    • Intelligent tutoring systems

    • Automatically grading exams

  • Legal:

    • Distinguishing between true and false memories

    • Evaluating line-ups

  • Sales

    • Understanding beliefs and desires

  • Information technology:

    • Search engines

    • Building intelligent systems

      Cognitive scientists might have some things to say about these issues.


Most cognitive scientists are cognitive psychologists, computer scientists, or cognitive neuroscientists

(from: Schunn et al. 2005)


Understanding Computation computer scientists, or cognitive neuroscientists

Building computer models that learn from the environment

To understand how

Computer Science/

the brain works

Artificial

I

ntelligence

Neuroscience

Interdisciplinary

study of intelligent

behavior

To understand

For behavioral data in

Cognitive

limits

of theories

various tasks; mental representations and processes

Science

Philosophy

Cognitive Psychology

To understand

Linguistics

structure of

language

We will focus mostly on insights from Cognitive Psychology


Areas of study
Areas of Study computer scientists, or cognitive neuroscientists

  • Cognitive psychology/science is about studying internal processes that are often unobservable, e.g.:

    Perception, Attention, Memory, Visual Imagery, Language, Concept Learning, Reasoning

  • Need converging evidence from different perspectives to really understand cognitive processes

?


Levels of analysis
Levels of Analysis computer scientists, or cognitive neuroscientists

  • Implementational:

    • Where does mental activity take place in the brain?

    • How is processing actually done with neural activity?

  • Algorithmic:

    • What is the abstract representation for input and output?

    • What stages are used to process information?

    • (also known as information processing level)

  • Computational:

    • Why does the algorithm work well?

    • What is the goal or purpose of the computation?

(Marr, 1982)


Levels of analysis example
Levels of Analysis Example computer scientists, or cognitive neuroscientists


Cognitive neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience computer scientists, or cognitive neuroscientists

  • the study of the relation between cognitive processes and brain activities

  • Potential to measure some “hidden” processes that are part of cognitive theories (e.g. memory activation, attention, “insight”)

  • Measuring when and where activity is happening. Different techniques have different strengths: tradeoff between spatial and temporal resolution


Information processing
Information Processing computer scientists, or cognitive neuroscientists

  • Information processing models resemble processing in computers – made cognitive psychology popular

  • Idea is that information is processed in a number of stages

  • The major goal of information processing research is to

    • identify those processes

    • identify how information is represented


Types of processing
Types of Processing computer scientists, or cognitive neuroscientists

  • Bottom-up processing

  • Top-down processing

  • Parallel processing

  • Serial processing


An early version of the information processing approach purely bottom up or stimulus driven
An early version of the information-processing approach computer scientists, or cognitive neuroscientists purely bottom up or stimulus-driven


A demonstration of top down processing
A Demonstration of computer scientists, or cognitive neuroscientistsTop-Down Processing


Top-down processing: perception affected by knowledge of world

Why do we seem to have a fairly robust interpretation of which shapes are concave and convex when the perceptual information is perfectly ambiguous? -> perception affected by knowledge

(Kleffner & Ramachandran, ’92)


Top down processing perception affected by memory

First time, sine wave speech sounds incomprehensible world(to most)

After hearing the natural utterance, perception of sine-wave speech seems to be quite different

Top down processing: perception affected by memory

http://psiexp.ss.uci.edu/research/teachingP140C/demos/sinewavespeech.aif

"The steady drip is worse than a drenching rain."

http://psiexp.ss.uci.edu/research/teachingP140C/demos/naturalutterance.aif

(for more info: http://www.haskins.yale.edu/haskins/MISC/SWS/SWS.html)


Sound induced illusory flashes
Sound Induced Illusory Flashes world

  • Example of parallel and interactive processing:

    • processing of perceptual information in one modality is often affected by processing in another modality

  • Demo of sound induced illusory flashes:

    • http://shamslab.psych.ucla.edu/demos/

    • http://www.cns.atr.jp/~kmtn/soundInducedIllusoryFlash/index.html

    • http://www.cns.atr.jp/~kmtn/soundInducedIllusoryFlash2/

    • For more information on this effect see: http://shamslab.psych.ucla.edu/publications/SCR-reprint.pdf

    • note: demo might not work on your particular computer

    • Demo shows that visual perception affected by auditory perception


Top-down worldprocessingLater stages of processing affect earlier stages can explain effects of Knowledge, memory, expectations and context


Parallel vs serial processing
Parallel vs. Serial Processing world

  • To illustrate the difficulty of distinguishing between serial and parallel processing, consider the Sternberg task

  • Goal: what steps are involved in comparing information to memory? How long do these steps take?

  • Task:

    • give subjects memory sets. E.g. 3 9 7

    • Probe memory with targets and foil digits: 9 = “yes”, 6=“no”. Measure reaction time.

    • Vary the size of these memory sets


Typical sternberg results
Typical Sternberg Results world

  • Plot reaction time as function of memory set size and type of trial (targets/foils)

  • What are the implications of seeing a linear increase in reaction time as a function of memory set?


A serial information processing model for sternberg task
A serial information processing worldmodel for Sternberg task

Make Decision

Is it a 7?

Perceive Stimulus

Is it a 3?

Is it a 9?

yes

9

This serial information processing model predicts a linear increase


A parallel information processing model for sternberg task
A parallel information processing worldmodel for Sternberg task

Is it a 3?

Perceive Stimulus

9

Make Decision

Is it a 9?

yes

Is it a 7?

This parallel information processing model also predicts a linear increase


Identifiability
Identifiability world

  • Sometimes, behavioral results do not allow processes and representations to be uniquely identified (e.g. Sternberg task)

  • Identifiabilityrefers to the ability to specify the correct combination of representations and processes used to accomplish a task


How can we tell models theories apart
How can we tell models/theories apart? world

  • Need converging evidence to tell theories apart

    • More behavioral data

    • Data from cognitive neuroscience

    • Data from neuropsychology


Note world

  • Please read book

    • to review major brain structures and their functions

    • to review brain imaging techniques

  • See also additional PowerPoint slides available on class website

    • cogneuro review slides


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