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Norman, Kustas et al. (1995)

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Treats soil/plant-atmosphere coupling differences explicitly. Accommodates off-nadir thermal sensor view angles . Provides information on soil/plant fluxes and stress. Two-Source Model ( TSM*) Parameterization of Soil & Canopy Sensible Heat Flux (H).

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slide1

Treats soil/plant-atmosphere

coupling differences explicitly

Accommodates off-nadir

thermal sensor view angles

Provides information on

soil/plant fluxes and stress

Two-Source Model (TSM*) Parameterization of

Soil & Canopy Sensible Heat Flux (H)

TR(q) ~ fc(q)Tc + [1-fc(q)]Ts

Norman, Kustas et al. (1995)

TAERO

*Past attempts in deriving radiometric–aerodynamic relations for one-source modeling approaches using

experimental data have been found to be site and condition specific, and hence not robust for applications

in heterogeneous landscapes.

slide2

stressed

unstressed

TSM Parameterization of Soil & Canopy lE

lE = lEC + lES

lEC

lES

slide3

Results using TSM versus One-Source Model (OSM)

for a Variety of Land Cover/Climate Conditions

TA

RMSE ~ 55 W m-2

RMSE ~ 50 W m-2

RA

TA

TOM

REX

RA

TOH

RR

RX

TAC

TR(f)

TC

One-source model

HC

HS

RS

RMSE ~ 80 W m-2

RMSE ~ 90 W m-2

TS

Two-source model

slide4

Comparison of Flux Partitioning Between a Detailed SVAT (Cupid*) versus TSM

Under Full Range in Soil and Vegetation Conditions

PTC TSM

PTC Cupid

PTS TSM

PTS Cupid

*Cupid is a detailed, multi-source SVAT model that simulates a wide variety of physiological and environmental processes simultaneously (Norman, 1979, 1988, 1993).

slide5

Application of TSM from Regional to Local Scales

Using Time-Differencing Approaches

Anderson et al., 1997

Norman et al., 2003

Regional scale

DTRAD - GOES

fc - MODIS

Landscape scale

TRAD - TM, ASTER, MODIS

fc - TM, ASTER, MODIS

Surface temp:

Cover fraction:

slide6

Concluding Remarks

  • The TSM is capable of estimating more reliable fluxes than OSM over diverse land cover conditions.
  • The TSM formulations appear robust even under extremes in moisture/vegetation cover conditions simulated by a detailed SVAT model – Cupid.
  • The ability of the TSM to partition ET into evaporation and transpiration components provides additional hydrologic information about the moisture status of the soil and canopy system, and about the vertical distribution of moisture in the soil profile (surface layer vs. root zone).
  • How will TSM formulations be adapted/modified for significant understory (three-source?), for water substrate (rice crop, wetlands) or snow during melt season?
  • How conservative is the Priestley-Taylor αPTparameter (~1.3 for the canopy only!)used in the TSM formulation for canopy transpiration?
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