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Social Learning Theory. Albert Ba ndura Prepared by : Sarahandi Api Abdullah. Learning By Response Consequences. Direct experience : Positive and negative effect Learning by reinforcement portrayed as a mechanic process Profit more extensively Response consequences have several functions.

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Social learning theory

Social Learning Theory

Albert Bandura

Prepared by : SarahandiApi Abdullah


Learning by response consequences
Learning By Response Consequences

Direct experience : Positive and negative effect

Learning by reinforcement portrayed as a mechanic process

Profit more extensively

Response consequences have several functions


Response consequences
Response Consequences

Reinforcing Function

Informative Function

Motivational Function


Informative function
Informative Function

Not only perform responses but also notice the effects they produce

Develop hypotheses about response

Serve as guide for future action

Outcomes change behaviour in human largely

Consequences generally produce little change in complex behaviour


Motivational function
Motivational Function

Anticipatory enable humans to be motivated

People can convert future consequences into current motivation of behaviour

Anticipatory thought encourages foresightfulbehaviour


Reinforcing function
Reinforcing Function

Consequences increase behaviour automatically without conscious involvement

Reinforcing consequences were ineffective in modifying behaviour as long as participants were unaware of the reinforcement contingency: but participants suddenly increased the appropriate behaviour when they discovered which responses would be rewarded (Spielberger and De Nike, 1966).

Behaviour is not much affected by it consequences without awareness of what is being reinforced (Dulany, 1968).

Learning can occur without awareness, albeit slowly and quite efficiently (Postman and Sassenrath, 1961).

Awareness is not an all-or non phenomenon

Reinforcement provide an effective means of regulating behaviour that have already learn


Learning through modelling
Learning Through Modelling

Most human behaviour is learned observationally through modelling

People can learn from example


Four component processes
Four Component Processes

Motor Reproduction Processes

Motivational Processes

Retention Processes

Attentional Process


Attentional process
Attentional Process

Modelling Stimuli

Distinctiveness

Affective Valence

Complexity

Prevalence

Functional Value

Observer Characteristics

Sensory Capacities

AurosalLebel

Perceptual Set

Past reinforcement


Retention process
Retention Process

Symbolic Coding

Cognitive Organization

Symbolic Rehearsal

Motor Rehearsal


Motor reproduction process
Motor Reproduction Process

Physical Capabilities

Availability of component responses

Self Observation of reproductions

Accuracy feedback


Motivational process
Motivational Process

External Reinforcement

Vicarious Reinforcement

Self Reinforcement


Comparative analysis 0f modelling
Comparative Analysis 0f modelling

Lower species will learn simple acts through modelling

Higher species have increasing capability to symbolize experience


Locus of response integration in observational learning
Locus of response integration in Observational learning

New pattern of behaviour are created by organizing responses into certain patterns and sequences

Response components chained by reinforcement to form more complex units of behaviour

People guide their actions


Role of reinforcement on observational learning
Role of Reinforcement on observational learning

Matching responses must be reinforced in order to be learned (Baer & Sherman, 1964; Miller & Dollard, 1941; Gewirtz & Stingle, 1968)

Achieved through differential reinforcement

Imitative behaviour that a person has previously learned can be prompted by actions of others and the prospect of reward

Occur through symbolic processes during exposure to modelled activities


The modelling process and transmission of response information
The Modelling Process and Transmission of response information

Modelling influences: transmit information to observers

Conveyed by physical demonstration, pictorial representation or verbal description


Physical demonstration
Physical demonstration information

Directed observation of behaviour as it is performed by others


Verbal description
Verbal Description information

Preferred mode of response guidance as linguistic skill are developed

Use extensively: can convey with words an almost infinite variety


Pictorial representation
Pictorial Representation information

The abundant and varied symbolic modelling provided by television, films and other visual media

It has been shown that both children and adults acquire attitudes, emotional responses and new styles of conduct through filmed and televised modelling (Bandura, 1973; Liebert, Neale & Davidson, 1973)

Media play an influential role in shaping behaviour and social attitude

Developments in communication technology will enable people to observe on request almost any desired activity at any time on computer linked television console (Parker, 1970)


Scope of modelling influences
Scope Of Modelling Influences information

Modelling can influence, create generative and innovative behaviour

Through a process of abstract modelling, observers derive the principles underlying specific performances for generating behaviour that goes beyond what they have seen or heard (Bandura, 1971b; Zimmerman & Rosenthal, 1974)


Abstract modelling
Abstract Modelling information

People observe others performing various performing various responses embodying a certain rule or principle

Observer must apply what the have learned to new or familiar situations

Observer extract the common attributes exemplified in diverse modelled responses and formulate rules for regenerating behaviour

General features can be extracted through repeated exposure


Creative modelling
Creative Modelling information

Innovative patterns can emerge through modelling process

Different observers adopt different combinations of characteristics

Models are unusually productive and observers possess limited skills


Other modelling
Other Modelling information

Modelling influences can strengthen or weaken inhibitions over behaviour that observers have previously learned (Bandura,1971b)

The actions of others can also serve as social cues for eliciting pre-existing behaviour

Modelling influences can have additional effect


Diffusion of innovation
Diffusion of innovation information

Modelling plays a prime role in spreading new ideas and social practices within society

Successful diffusion of innovation follows a common pattern:

New behaviour is introduced by prominent examples

Adopted at a rapidly accelerating rate

Stabilizes or declines upon its functional value

Two processes in the social diffusion of innovation:

Acquisition of innovative behaviour

Adoption in practice


Acquisition of innovative behaviour
Acquisition of innovative behaviour information

Modelling serves as the major vehicle for transmitting new styles of behaviour

Symbolic modelling usually function as the principal conveyance of innovations


Adoptive behaviour
Adoptive Behaviour information

Highly susceptible to reinforcement influences

Depicted as resulting in a host of rewarding effects.

Partly governed by self-generated consequences to one’s own conduct


Interdependence of personal and environmental influences
Interdependence of Personal and Environmental influences information

The influence exerted by the individual and by his or her behaviour will be designated together as the personal determinant

Internal personal factors and behaviour operate as reciprocal determinants of each other

The environment is only potentiality until actualized by appropriate actions

Behaviour partly determines which of the potential environmental influence


Selective activation of potential influence
Selective activation of potential influence information

Behavioural and environmental influences affect each other

The rewards of an environment

The potential environment is fixed so that behaviour determines only the extent to which it impinges on the organism


Reciprocal influence and the exercise of self direction
Reciprocal Influence and the exercise of self direction information

Freedom is defined in terms of the number of option available to people and the right to exercise them


Constraints on personal freedom
Constraints On Personal Freedom information

Can be limited in many different ways

Society must place some limits on conduct

Legal Prohibition


Freedom and determinism
Freedom and Determinism information

Skills at one’s command and the exercise of self-influence which choice of action require

Those who have many behavioural options and are adept at regulating their own behaviour will experience greater freedom


Reciprocal influence and the limits of the social control
Reciprocal Influence and the limits of the social control information

  • Bearing on the public’s concern that advances in psychological knowledge

  • All behaviour is inevitably controlled

  • Possible remedies :

    • Individual Safeguards

    • Social Safeguards


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