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Anti-Drug Campaign. Cool Video. http://aimediaserver.com/studiodaily/harvard/harvard.swf. Ecstasy. Also known as. X E Lover’s Speed XTC MDMA  3,4 – methylenedioxymethamphetamine. General Information.

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Cool video
Cool Video

http://aimediaserver.com/studiodaily/harvard/harvard.swf



Also known as
Also known as...

  • X

  • E

  • Lover’s Speed

  • XTC

  • MDMA

     3,4 – methylenedioxymethamphetamine


General information
General Information

  • MDMA has a chemical structure & effects similar to an amphetamine (stimulant) and mescaline (hallucinogen)

  • Often branded with a logo (e.g. Butterfly) but there are many copycats and logos should not be associated with quality



In other words
In other words...

Affects chemistry of the brain by releasing serotonin which affects mood, energy levels and appetite.


You don t know what you re getting
You don’t know what you’re getting

  • Often not pure MDMA!

  • Includes other drugs such as:

    • Ephedrine (amphetamine)

    • Caffeine (stimulant)

    • Dextromethorphan (hallucinogen, pain relief)

    • Ketamine (“Special K”; date rape drug, veterinary anaesthetic)

    • LSD (psychedelic drug)


PMA

  • Paramethoxamphetamine (PMA) is often sold as ecstasy, INSTEAD OF MDMA.

  • PMA has similar effects in that it is hallucinogenic and a psychostimulant, but the dose-response curve is much higher than MDMA

  • LETHALeven at low doses


The positive effects of a low moderate dose
The Positive Effects of a Low-Moderate Dose:

  • Pleasure

  • Well-being

  • Increased sociability

  • Closeness with others

  • Energy confidence

  • Makes you feel invincible


The negative effects of a low moderate dose
The Negative Effects of a Low-Moderate Dose:

  • Grinding of teeth and jaw pain

  • Blurred vision

  • Sweating

  • Nausea, vomiting, convulsions

  • Anxiety and panic attack

  • Dehydration

  • Increase blood pressure and heart rate

  • Kidney failure

  • Heart Failure

  • Liver damage

  • Stroke

  • Seizure

  • Makes you feel invincible


Short term after effects
Short-term After-effects

  • Confusion

  • Irritability

  • Anxiety

  • Paranoia

  • Depression

  • Memory Impairment

  • Sleep Problems

    These can last from a few days to WEEKS


Long term after effects
Long-term After-effects

  • Damaged brain cells

  • Affects learning and memory

  • Perhaps more, as research is not complete


The real danger
The REAL Danger

  • Can never be sure of purity: YOU DON’T KNOW WHAT YOU’RE TAKING (PMA? Ephedrine? Dextromethorphan? Ketamine? LSD?)

  • People with high blood pressure, heart/liver problems, diabetes, epilepsy/mental disorder are most vulnerable, ESPECIALLY SINCE MOST PEOPLE ARE UNAWARE OF THEIR CONDITION.


What about just trying it once
What about just “trying it” once?


Marissa Ann Napier

1986 - 2001


Marissa Ann Napier

  • Age 15, athletic, in excellent health, no abnormal allergies.

  • Took ecstasy for the first time at a party in West Seattle on August 12, 2001.

  • A few hours after taking pill, went into convulsions, seizures.

  • Irregular breathing caused her oxygen-starved brain to shut down.

  • Unconscious, pupils fixed and dilated, pink frothy foam coming out the side of her mouth.

  • Pulmonary edema – lungs filled with water.

  • Spent more than a day in a coma.

  • Died.


Lorna spinks
Lorna Spinks

1982 - 2001


Lorna spinks1
Lorna Spinks

  • Age 19, first year sociology student at Cambridge University.

  • Taken to hospital with her mouth foaming, eyes bulging.

  • Blood overheated (109 F) and would not clot; organs failed.

  • Suffered from cerebral edema (swelling of the brain).

  • Died.


Lorna spinks2
Lorna Spinks

  • Endo-tracheal tube inserted into mouth to help with breathing.

  • Naso-gastric tube inserted into mouth to counter stomach inflation and swelling.

  • Other tubes for intravenous infusions, placed in neck or ear.



Are you overweight
Are you overweight?

  • The best measure is the BMI (Body Mass Index) = weight in kg/height in m2


The calorie
The Calorie

  • A calorie is a unit of measure, like the meter, gram, or litre; it is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1g of water by one degree Celsius.

  • Chemical reactions that go on in the body will require or release heat, and that amount of heat is measured in calories.

  • The calories that you see in your food is the amount of energy that that food will give you; when we talk about “burning” calories, it means we are making our bodies use up the food to give us energy.


The bmr
The BMR

  • Your metabolism is the energy consumption by all the processes in your body; making your heart beat, lung functions, etc.

  • The basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the energy expenditure if you did nothing but sleep for 24 hours; basically, it is the energy it takes to keep you alive.

  • BMR = 1400-1700 calories per day.


Weight
Weight

  • Any movement or energy expenditure over and above sleeping in a 24 hour period requires additional energy (more than the BMR).

  • Therefore, depending on your every day activity level, you would probably require about 2000 calories a day.

  • The only way to lose weight is to spend more calories than your BMR, because then your body will start feeding off the fat that is stored. BUT eating less becomes ineffective because the BMR can readjust itself!

  • Exercising will counteract this to increase your BMR so that your body needs more energy just for it to function normally.


3 classes of weight control drugs
3 Classes of Weight-Control Drugs

  • Affecting Metabolic Activity

  • Affecting Nutrient Absorption

  • Controlling Appetite


Drugs affecting metabolic activity
Drugs Affecting Metabolic Activity

  • Speeds up metabolism (energy consumption) so that calories cannot be stored (as fat) and are converted to heat (thermogenic drugs).

  • Example: Metabolife’sXenadrine

    • Ephedrine is the active compound

    • 155 deaths from this drug

    • Banned in January 2004

  • Example: Insulin

    • “Von Bulow” case; Sunny von Bulow was found in a coma, with an insulin syringe next to her bed.


Drugs affecting nutrient absorption
Drugs Affecting Nutrient Absorption

  • Xenical (Orlistat) affects the absorption of fat.

  • Fats are metabolized by first being cut up by an enzyme known as lipase; Orlistat inactivates lipase and has some effect of reducing the absorption of fat by 20%.

  • Side-effects include gastrointestinal discomfort, loose stools, lowered vitamin intake.


Drugs controlling appetite
Drugs Controlling Appetite

  • Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and serotonin are two neurotransmitters that play a role in controlling appetite.

  • A neurotransmitter is a chemical substance that is produced and secreted by a neuron (brain cell).


Drugs controlling appetite through their effect on noradrenaline
Drugs Controlling Appetite through their effect on noradrenaline

  • Example:Benzedrine

    • Side-effects: cardiovascular problems, anxiety, dependence, and eventually tolerance.

    • Elvis Presley was affected by this drug.

  • Example:Dietac (diet aid capsule) and Contac-C (cough medicine)

    • PPA is the active ingredient and is an appetite suppressant and a decongestant.

    • Side-effects: hallucinations, strokes.


Drugs controlling appetite through their effect on serotonin
Drugs Controlling Appetite through their effect on serotonin

  • Example:FEN/PHEN

    • Side-effects: Drowsiness, depression, pulmonary problems

  • Example:REDUX

    • Invented to try an solve the problems of FEN/PHEN

    • Side-effects: dry-mouth, diarrhea, fatigue, and primary pulmonary hypertension (life-threatening)

  • Serotonin Syndrome

    • Dangerously high levels of serotonin can cause extreme agitation or restlessness, confusion, hallucinations, loss of coordination, fast heartbeat, rapid changes in blood pressure, fever, heavy sweating, overactive reflexes, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, seizures, coma .


Cannabis marijuana and hash
Cannabis Marijuana and Hash


General information1
General Information

  • Derived from the Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica plants

  • Active psychoactive chemical compound in cannabis is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, commonly known as THC.

    • Drug screens can detect traces of cannabis ingredients up to a month after use, because of the chemical properties of the drug.

  • Hashish (hash) is the resinous form of cannabis and is derived from the trichomes of the cannabis plant.

  • Many different strains of the cannabis plant exist, such as Purple Haze, Northern Lights, Super Skunk Weed, White Widow, Big Bud, Orange Crush, etc.


Medicinal marijuana
Medicinal Marijuana

  • Though commonly used as a recreational drug, marijuana has some medicinal uses

    • Therapeutic use of marijuana does not depend on the patient getting high.

    • Smoking marijuana as a therapeutic drug has not been approved anywhere.


Marijuana action
Marijuana Action

  • THC acts as a neurotransmitter, activating cannabinoid receptors in the body.

    • These receptors are found all over the body in two different forms: CB1 and CB2.

    • CB1 receptors are primarily found in the brain and when activated convey the “high” sensation associated with smoking marijuana.

    • CB2 receptors are found mostly in the immune system. When activated they modulate immune responses, increasing some and repressing others.


Dangers of marijuana
Dangers of Marijuana

  • Risk of addiction because THC activates the reward pathways in the brain.

  • For males, high doses of THC lowers blood concentration of testosteroneand impairs sperm.

  • For females, THC will disrupt the ovulation cycle.

  • Cannabis has been associated with the development of anxiety, psychosis, and depression.

  • Cannabis smoke contains known carcinogens and causes many of the same pathologies as tobacco smoke.


Cigarettes cigars and cigarillos
Cigarettes Cigars and Cigarillos


General information2
General Information

  • Made of cured and finely cut tobacco leaves and additives (over 500!) wrapped in paper.

  • As a cigarette burns, over 4000 chemical compounds are created – some are even radioactive and carcinogenic.

  • Cigarette addiction is caused by exposure to nicotine. Upon smoking, it takes only 10 seconds for the nicotine to reach the brain.

  • Cigarettes are heavily taxed; the more you smoke, the more money the government gets.


Nicotine addiction
Nicotine Addiction

  • Addiction to cigarettes is caused by exposure to nicotine.

    • The body has “nicotinic receptors” everywhere. Many of these receptors are found in the reward pathway of the brain, so the more nicotine you take, the better you feel; this is why you always need more (like marijuana).


Dangers of smoking
Dangers of Smoking

Coronary artery partially obstructed by plaque buildup.

Cancer is caused by exposure to carcinogens in cigarette smoke which mutate healthy cells.

Cilia are smaller hair-like extensions on cells in your trachea. Nicotine paralyzes the cilia and this causes irritation because you can’t remove dust and other foreign particles.

Many ingredients in cigarettes will cause narrowing of blood vessels, which increases the risk of a blockage.

As with marijuana, sperm cells can be killed.

Smoking during pregnancy can cause sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), in which a seemingly healthy baby just dies.


Stop smoking
STOP SMOKING!

  • Person's increased risk of contracting disease is directly proportional to the length of time that a person continues to smoke as well as the amount smoked.

  • In 2002, the UN’s World Health Organization estimates that 26% of male deaths in the world and 9% of female deaths in the world are attributable to some form of tobacco smoking.

  • Smokers will live 2.5 to 10 years more if they didn’t smoke.

  • The benefits of smoking cessation are instantaneous.


Some not so cool videos
Some not so cool videos...

  • Gruen, after three and a half years of chewing tobacco, developed cancer of the mouth.

  • Terrie was an occasional smoker and has had seven different forms of cancer. A tumour in her larynx resulted in the removal of her voice box.



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