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Pests, Pollinators, and Pesticides. By: Ann Fucigna, Hayley Litchfield, Emma Getsinger, Olivia Malvisi. Kills off pests. Increases crop gross production. Kill off some harmful bacteria.

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Pests, Pollinators, and Pesticides

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Pests pollinators and pesticides l.jpg

Pests, Pollinators, and Pesticides

By: Ann Fucigna, Hayley Litchfield, Emma Getsinger, Olivia Malvisi


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Kills off pests.

Increases crop gross production.

Kill off some harmful bacteria.

Pests are able to evolve and adapt to the chemicals and make them ineffective because the pests are no longer effected.

Toxic to the environment and biological organisms.

Very expensive.

Decreases biodiversity in soil.

Positives vs. Negatives


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The Theories of Coevolution and The Pesticide Treadmill

The Pesticide Treadmill

  • Sometimes referred to as a pesticide trap…

  • It is when pesticides are used in an area where they are toxic to a species that feed on or compete with the pests, the pesticides will expand further, then requiring more pesticides in the long run.

  • There is no end to this toxic pest spiral.

    • "Since the 1940s, pest management technology has increasingly relied on chemical pesticides. Although in some cases this use has led to significant short term alleviation of pest problems, it has not led to long term sustainable solutions.”

      Coevolution

  • When two or more species reciprocally affect each other’s evolution.


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Types of Pesticides

  • Broad-Spectrum Pesticides

    • A pesticide that is effective against many pest

      • Ex) Organic Azamax is a broad-spectrum insecticide that controls pests like mites, aphids, whiteflies, caterpillars, thrips, grasshoppers and more

  • Narrow-Spectrum Pesticides

    • developedto kill specific organism types.

      • Ex) algaecides for algae, avicides for birds, fungicides for fungi


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The “Ideal” Pesticides

  • Selective in its effect

  • Non-phytotoxic (not poisonous to plants)

  • Act rapidly on pests

  • Completely harmless to people, domestic animals, wildlife, and other aspects of the environment

  • Inexpensiveand readily available in necessary quantities

  • Safe to use around homes or industrial sites

  • Easily prepared and applied,

  • Non-corrosive, non-staining, and non-residual – preferably biodegradable


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We Have Developed Thousands of Chemical Pesticides

  • 1st Generation Pesticides= are composed of mainly natural substances with chemicals borrowed from plants.

    • The use of these pesticides has been largely abandoned because it is too ineffective or too toxic

  • Pyrethrum= natural insecticide made from the dried flower heads of C.cinerariifolium and C. coccineum.

  • Rotenone= A broad-spectrum pesticide that occurs naturally in the roots and stems of several plants such as the jicama vine plant.


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DDT

  • An insecticide used first during WWII in order to wipe out the mosquitoes caring diseases to protect the soldiers, it is said to have saved around 25 million lives

    • “DDT the first of the chlorinated organic insecticides, was originally prepared in 1873, but it was not until 1939 that Paul Muller of Geigy Pharmaceutical in Switzerland discovered the effectiveness of DDT as an insecticide he was awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology in 1948 for this discovery).”

    • “problems related to extensive use of DDT began to appear in the late 1940s. Many species of insects developed resistance to DDT, and DDT was also discovered to have a high toxicity toward fish.”


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Malthion

  • Can be very toxic to fish, moderately toxic to birds, also toxic to humans

    • “Malathion is a nonsystemic, wide-spectrum organophosphate insecticide. It was one of the earliest organophosphate insecticides developed (introduced in 1950).”

    • “Malathion is suited for the control of sucking and chewing insects on fruits and vegetables, and is also used to control mosquitoes, flies, household insects, animal parasites (ectoparasites), and head and body lice. Malathion may also be found in formulations with many other pesticides.”


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Carbaryl

  • “Carbaryl is a wide-spectrum carbamate insecticide which controls over 100 species of insects on citrus, fruit, cotton, forests, lawns, nuts, ornamentals, shade trees, and other crops, as well as on poultry, livestock and pets.”

  • “It is also used as a molluscicide and an acaricide. Carbaryl works whether it is ingested into the stomach of the pest or absorbed through direct contact.”


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Chlordane

  • It is no longer used, “In 1988, all commercial and domestic use of chlordane in the U.S. was banned by the EPA.”

    • “Chlordane was used extensively as an insecticide in the U.S., from its introduction in 1947, through the 1980s. The most common use of chlordane was for termite control.”

    • “Although no longer used, chlordane is very persistent and can still be found in some soils.”

  • When tested on rodents, it made scientist question whether the chemical would cause cancer rates to increase


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Dieldrin

  • An insecticide

  • Ranked as one of the most hazardous compounds (worst 10%) to ecosystems and human health.

  • Very effective, used as an alternate to DDT


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Herbacides

  • Atrazine

  • Fights weeds in corn, grain sorghum, sugar cane and other crops

  • One of the most effective, affordable and trusted products in agriculture today.

  • Is safe to the crop and fits a variety of farming systems.

  • Passes the most stringent, up-to-date safety requirements in the world.

  • Poses no threat to the safety of our drinking water


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    Fungicides

    • Formaldehyde

      • Used widely by industry to manufacture building materials and numerous household products.

      • By-product of combustion and certain other natural processes.

      • Pressed wood products

      • Durable press drapes, other textiles, and glues.

      • Can cause watery eyes, burning sensations in the eyes and throat, nausea, and difficulty in breathing in some humans exposed at elevated levels (above 0.1 parts per million).

      • May trigger attacks in people with asthma

      • Health effects include eye, nose, and throat irritation; wheezing and coughing; fatigue; skin rash; severe allergic reactions. May cause cancer.


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    Rodenticides & Nematocides

    Rodenticides

    • pesticides used in urban, suburban, and rural areas to control rodents

    • prevent transmission of disease and property damage.

    • also used to control moles, chipmunks, ground squirrels, jackrabbits, gophers, muskrat, and mongoose in areas such as orchards and rangelands and in conservation programs.

    • With EPA’s required risk mitigation measures in place, rodenticide products will be safe, effective, and affordable for all consumers.

    • In addition to rodenticide baits, products that do not contain pesticides, such as spring traps, are also available to consumers to control mice and rats

    • These 10 pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

      • Brodifacoum, Bromadiolone, Bromethalin, Chlorophacinone, Cholecaciferol, Difenacoum, Difethialone, Diphacinone, Warfarin, Zinc Phosphide.

        Nematocides

    • used to kill nematodes

    • worm-like creatures in soil- very potent


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    Related Laws

    • Federal Insecticide, fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIRFA)

  • The goal is to control the distribution, sale and use of pesticides

  • Passed in 1947 and has been amended many times

  • All pesticides used in the US must be registered by the EPA

  • This applies to all types of pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, and antimicrobials.


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    Related Laws

    • Food Quality Protection Act 1996 (FQPA)

  • One of the most significant environmental and public health bills passed in 20 years

  • Help to make the food supply safer for this generation of children and adults by limiting the amount of pesticide residue on all food sold in the United States.

  • Resulted in three major changes in the regulation of pesticides and their use on food products.

    • FQPA contains provisions specifically designed to protect the health of infants and children

    • requires the EPA to consider all of the different exposures to pesticides that adults and children face when setting limits for pesticide residues on food.

    • eliminated the zero-tolerance standard for cancer-causing substances in processed foods and replaced it with a negligible risk standard for all foods.


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    Biological control pits one organism against another:

    • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt): a bacterium found in all types of terrain (beaches, desert, and tundra habitats) that produces crystals protein which are toxic to many species of insects.

    • Biological control agents themselves may become pests

      • Cactus moth: They destroy prickly pear cactuses and are destroying thousands of cactuses where it is not needed. In 1989 they were introduced into the USA and are an invasive species.

      • Hawaii—wasps: Farmers introduced parasitic wasps to prey on moths and butterflies that were devouring fields of sugarcane. However, the wasps infiltrated a pristine boggy forest on Kauai, many miles from where they had been introduced, and are now a dominant species.


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    Integrated pest management (IPM) combines biocontrol and chemical methods

    • “Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an effective and environmentally sensitive approach to pest management that relies on a combination of common-sense practices. IPM programs use current, comprehensive information on the life cycles of pests and their interaction with the environment. This information, in combination with available pest control methods, is used to manage pest damage by the most economical means, and with the least possible hazard to people, property, and the environment.”

    • Most people who work in agriculture use the methods suggested by the IPM


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    We depend on Insects to Pollinate Crops

    • Without insects to pollinate our crops, the crops would not reproduce

    • Honey Bee:

      • It cross pollinates between plants such as the apple tree

      • We would not have apples as well as many other fruits and vegetables if it were not for bees

      • More than 100 agricultural plants are pollinated by bees

      • “Part of the reason honey bees are so important as pollinators is that they actively seek out flowers with pollen, unlike pollinators such as bats and hummingbirds who are primarily interested in nectar.”


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    Pictures


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    Works Cited

    • http://scorecard.org/chemical-profiles/summary.tcl?edf_substance_id=60-57-1#use_profile

    • http://envirocancer.cornell.edu/FactSheet/Pesticide/fs11.chlordane.cfm

    • http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/carbaryl-dicrotophos/carbaryl-ext.html

    • http://extoxnet.orst.edu/pips/malathio.htm

    • http://www.3dchem.com/molecules.asp?ID=90

      • http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/insects/ahb/inf10.html

    • http://www.pmac.net/rachel.htm

    • http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/IIIFCoevolution.shtml

    • http://www.greenfootsteps.com/pesticides-and-pollution.html

    • http://www.fims.uwo.ca/newmedia2006/default.asp?id=317

    • http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/regulating/tolerances.htm

    • http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/IIIFCoevolution.shtml

    • http://www.pmac.net/rachel.htm


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