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D r a f t. Life Cycle Assessment A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis UNEP LCA Training Kit Module i – The mathematics of LCIA. D r a f t. Characterisation models Characterisation factors The characterisation step. Contents. Characterisation models. impact.

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D r a f t

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D r a f t

Life Cycle AssessmentA product-oriented methodfor sustainability analysisUNEP LCA Training KitModule i – The mathematics of LCIA

D r a f t

• Characterisation models

• Characterisation factors

• The characterisation step

Contents

### Characterisation models

impact

mass (or concentration)

### Characterisation factors (1)

impact

mass (or concentration)

### Characterisation factors (2)

• Infinitesimal small change:

• Substance and category dependence:

• Multiple substance dependence

### Characterisation models (1)

• Characterization models express the relationship between the category indictor and the outputs

• Characterization factors are derived from models that predict the impact

### Characterisation models (2)

• Often developed outside LCA

• IPCC, WMO, …

• derivative

• linearised model

• only valid for small change

• partial derivative

• constant background

### The characterisation step (1)

• Conversion and aggregation

• conversion

• aggregation

• together

### The characterisation step (2)

• Or in matrix form

• or even more condensed

• here no problems with inversion or non-square matrices