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SUPER -KAMIOKANDE. Kamiokande = Kamioka Nucleon Decay Experiment. Topics of Discussion. Detector Super-Kamiokande Solar neutrinos Results . Properties of Super-K. A Large Water Cherenkov Detector for Cosmic Particles Size: Cylinder of 41.4m (Height) x 39,9m (Diameter)

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Super kamiokande l.jpg

SUPER -KAMIOKANDE

Kamiokande = Kamioka Nucleon Decay Experiment


Topics of discussion l.jpg
Topics of Discussion

  • Detector Super-Kamiokande

  • Solar neutrinos

  • Results


Properties of super k l.jpg
Properties of Super-K

  • A Large Water Cherenkov Detector for Cosmic Particles

  • Size: Cylinder of 41.4m (Height) x 39,9m (Diameter)

  • Weight: 50,000 tons of pure Water

  • Number of Photomultipier Tubes: 11,200



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How does S-K detect?

The PMTs collect the pale blue light called Cherenkov light which is emitted by particles travelling faster as light in the water


Cherenkov radiation l.jpg

Cherenkovlight

wavefront

Compare : shock wave of supersonic airplanes

c0 = speed of light in vacuum

Cherenkov radiation

See http://webphysics.davidson.edu/applets/applets.html for a nice illustration


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The picture above shows an incoming 1063 MeV neutrino which strikes a free proton at rest and produces a 1032 MeV muon. Different colors are related to time, blue shows the muon, green the electron of the muon decay.


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Advantages of S-K strikes a free proton at rest and produces a 1032 MeV muon. Different colors are related to time, blue shows the muon, green the electron of the muon decay.

  • The direction the neutrino came from can be determined

  • The time of the neutrino’s arrival can be determined

  • The energy of the electron gives a rough estimate of the neutrino energy


Time of neutrino s arrival l.jpg
Time of neutrino’s arrival strikes a free proton at rest and produces a 1032 MeV muon. Different colors are related to time, blue shows the muon, green the electron of the muon decay.

  • It is possible to search for day/night or seasonal variations


Direction of neutrino l.jpg
Direction of neutrino strikes a free proton at rest and produces a 1032 MeV muon. Different colors are related to time, blue shows the muon, green the electron of the muon decay.

  • One can provide solid evidence that the neutrinos are actually coming from the sun


Estimate of neutrino energy l.jpg
Estimate of neutrino Energy strikes a free proton at rest and produces a 1032 MeV muon. Different colors are related to time, blue shows the muon, green the electron of the muon decay.

It is possible to distinguish neutrinos from different reaction chains in the sun

So, where and how are neutrinos produced?


Solar fusion 1 l.jpg
Solar fusion 1 strikes a free proton at rest and produces a 1032 MeV muon. Different colors are related to time, blue shows the muon, green the electron of the muon decay.

  • Basic process in sun and most stars – fusion of hydrogen(protons) into helium

    First step is combination of two protons

    11H + 11H 21H + e+ +e

p

ne

n

then

e


Solar fusion 2 l.jpg
Solar fusion 2 strikes a free proton at rest and produces a 1032 MeV muon. Different colors are related to time, blue shows the muon, green the electron of the muon decay.

The cross-section for this process is very small at average proton energies in the core of the sun, however there is a huge number of protons available to react.

Deuterons so produced fuse with protons:

21H + 11H 32H + 


Solar fusion 3 l.jpg
Solar fusion 3 strikes a free proton at rest and produces a 1032 MeV muon. Different colors are related to time, blue shows the muon, green the electron of the muon decay.

  • In our sun 3He is most likely to react with another 3He nucleus.

    32He + 32He 42He + 2 11H + 

  • The complete process is given by:

    4 11H 42He +2 e+ +2 e +

  • This process is known as the proton-proton cycle or the ‘PPI chain’.


Solar fusion 4 l.jpg
Solar fusion 4 strikes a free proton at rest and produces a 1032 MeV muon. Different colors are related to time, blue shows the muon, green the electron of the muon decay.

  • PPII : 32He + 42He  74Be + 

    74Be + e-73Li + e

    73Li + 11H 2 42He

  • PPIII: 32He + 42He  74Be + 

    74Be + 11H  84Be + e+ + e

    84Be  2 42He


Solar neutrinos l.jpg
Solar neutrinos strikes a free proton at rest and produces a 1032 MeV muon. Different colors are related to time, blue shows the muon, green the electron of the muon decay.

  • Neutrinos are ‘ghost ‘-particles which merely interact, they are the only known type of particle that can escape from the sun’s core bringing direct information about the solar interior


Solar neutrinos 2 l.jpg
Solar neutrinos 2 strikes a free proton at rest and produces a 1032 MeV muon. Different colors are related to time, blue shows the muon, green the electron of the muon decay.

  • Neutrinos are difficult to detect and measure

  • Neutrinos produced in different branches carry away different amounts of energy and momentum – detector design has to take account


Solar neutrinos at s k l.jpg
Solar neutrinos at S-K strikes a free proton at rest and produces a 1032 MeV muon. Different colors are related to time, blue shows the muon, green the electron of the muon decay.

  • Super Kamiokande uses elastic scattering of neutrinos from electrons

  • Cherenkov radiation emitted by the electron is detected

e


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n strikes a free proton at rest and produces a 1032 MeV muon. Different colors are related to time, blue shows the muon, green the electron of the muon decay.e

e

Overview


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http://www.pc.uci.edu/~tomba/sk/tscan/solar strikes a free proton at rest and produces a 1032 MeV muon. Different colors are related to time, blue shows the muon, green the electron of the muon decay.


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Theory versus experiment strikes a free proton at rest and produces a 1032 MeV muon. Different colors are related to time, blue shows the muon, green the electron of the muon decay.


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  • All five blue bars, according to various experiments, show strikes a free proton at rest and produces a 1032 MeV muon. Different colors are related to time, blue shows the muon, green the electron of the muon decay.significantly less values than the model predictions: the discrepancy is approximately a factor oftwo


Additional result of s k l.jpg
Additional Result of S-K strikes a free proton at rest and produces a 1032 MeV muon. Different colors are related to time, blue shows the muon, green the electron of the muon decay.

  • S-K observes a significant difference between the numbers of neutrinos coming up through the ground as went down on the other side

  • A possible explanation is neutrino conversion takes place in matter – called Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect


Additional result of s k26 l.jpg
Additional Result of S-K strikes a free proton at rest and produces a 1032 MeV muon. Different colors are related to time, blue shows the muon, green the electron of the muon decay.

  • Super-K has found evidence of the transformation of muon type neutrinos to something else, probabely tau type neutrinos (neutrino oscillations).

  • This is taken as strong evidence that neutrinos have a small, but finite mass.


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What This Means strikes a free proton at rest and produces a 1032 MeV muon. Different colors are related to time, blue shows the muon, green the electron of the muon decay.

  • Neutrino oscillations is today the most promising of the proposed solutions to the solar neutrino problem


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