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Ca ++ Na +. Cl - SO 4 =. NO 3 -. Water Test Interpretation. Mike Kizer OSU Extension Irrigation Specialist. HCO 3 - CO 3 =. K + Mg ++. Measures of Water Quality. Electrical Conductivity (EC) Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) Individual mineral concentrations

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Ca++

Na+

Cl-

SO4=

NO3-

Water Test Interpretation

Mike Kizer

OSU Extension Irrigation Specialist

HCO3-

CO3=

K+

Mg++


Measures of water quality
Measures of Water Quality

  • Electrical Conductivity (EC)

  • Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)

  • Individual mineral concentrations

  • Calculated salinity products (Hardness, SAR, Na%, etc.)


Electrical conductivity ec
Electrical Conductivity(EC)

  • Pure water will not conduct electric current

  • The more minerals dissolved in water, the more current it conducts

  • EC is a good estimator of total mineral content (TSS)


Units ec
Units - EC

  • mmho/cm = (millimho per centimeter)

  • mmho/cm = (micromho per centimeter)

  • dS/m = (deciSiemen/meter)

  • mS/cm = (milliSiemen per centimeter)

  • 1 mmho/cm = 1 dS/m = 1mS/cm

  • 1 mmho/cm = 1000 mmho/cm


Total dissolved solids tds
Total Dissolved Solids(TDS)

  • TDS is calculated by adding all measured mineral concentrations as determined by chemical analyses

  • TSS is an estimate of TDS based on EC

  • EC (mmho/cm) x 640  TSS mg/l

  • This equivalence is approximate and depends on the ions causing the salinity (High levels of CO3 and HCO3 affect the ratio)


Units tds tss
Units - TDS / TSS

mg/l = milligrams/liter ppm = parts per million

mg/l = micrograms/liter ppb = parts per billion

  • 1 mg/l = 1 ppm in water chemistry (1 liter of water weighs 1,000,000 mg)

  • 1 mg/l = 1000 mg /l

  • 1 mg /l = 1 ppb in water chemistry


Swfal water quality tests
SWFAL Water Quality Tests

The OSU Soil Water & Forage Analytical Laboratory (Room 048 Ag. Hall) offers three water tests:

  • Livestock Water Test

  • Household Water Test

  • Irrigation Water Test

    (All tests require a 1 pint water sample)


Livestock water test
Livestock Water Test

  • Price: $6.00

  • Analytes:

    • pH

    • Total Soluble Salts (TSS)

    • Electrical Conductivity (EC)

    • Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N)


Livestock water quality total soluble salts tss
Livestock Water QualityTotal Soluble Salts -TSS

TSS (ppm)Interpretation

  • < 1000: Excellent

  • 1000 – 3000: Satisfactory for all animals

  • 3000 – 5000: Unsatisfactory for poultry

  • 5000 – 7000: Can be used except for pregnant, lactating or immature livestock

  • 10,000+: Unsatisfactory for all animals


Livestock water quality nitrate nitrogen no 3 n
Livestock Water QualityNitrate- Nitrogen –NO3-N

NO3-N (ppm)Interpretation

  • < 100: Satisfactory for all animals

  • 100 – 290: Use with care when given in combination with high nitrate feeds (especially forages in times of drought)

  • 290 +: Unsatisfactory for all animals


Livestock water quality
Livestock Water Quality

  • Sulfate (SO4): If most of the soluble salts are sulfates the acceptable TSS levels are reduced

  • pH: The preferred range is 6.0-8.5. Animals can tolerate water outside this range.


Household water test
Household Water Test

  • Price: $10.00

  • Analytes:

    • Sodium (Na) Chloride (Cl)

    • Calcium (Ca) Sulfate (SO4)

    • Magnesium (Mg) Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N)

    • Potassium (K) Electrical Conductivity (EC)

    • pH Total soluble Salts (TSS)

    • Hardness


Household water test nitrate nitrogen no 3 n
Household Water TestNitrate-Nitrogen – (NO3-N)

  • NO3-N is the only analyte on the test with a Federal SDWA Standard

  • The NO3-N standard is 10 mg/l

  • Newborn infants (less than 9 months) and pregnant women are “at-risk” consumers

  • NO3-N affects the blood’s ability to carry oxygen, causing methemoglobenemia


Household water test secondary contaminants
Household Water TestSecondary Contaminants

  • Other regulated analytes on the Household Water Test are Secondary Contaminants that have Federal SDWA Guidelines

  • Exceeding SDWA Guidelines is not a primary health risk

  • Secondary contaminants affect aesthetic quality of water (taste, odor, etc.) or damage the water system (hardness, corrosion, etc.)


Household water test secondary contaminants1
Household Water TestSecondary Contaminants

Secondary contaminants can indirectly affect health:

  • High sulfates can cause diarrhea which could result in dehydration

  • Corrosion due to low pH can leach lead from plumbing fixtures which could cause lead toxicity


Corrosiveness of water ph alkalinity balance
Corrosiveness of WaterpH – Alkalinity Balance


Household water test hardness
Household Water TestHardness

Hardness is caused by calcium and magnesium (iron also contributes to hardness)


Irrigation water test
Irrigation Water Test

  • Price: $12.00

  • Analytes:

    • Sodium (Na) —Chloride (Cl)

    • Calcium (Ca) —Sulfate (SO4)

    • Magnesium (Mg) —Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N)

    • Potassium (K) —Carbonate (CO3)

    • Boron (B) —Bicarbonate (HCO3)

    • pH —Electrical Conductivity (EC)

    • Hardness —Total Soluble Salts (TSS)

    • Residual Carbonates —Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR)


Irrigation water quality important analytes
Irrigation Water QualityImportant Analytes

•EC (or TSS): determines soil osmotic potential

•SAR (or Na%): rates infiltration problem potential

•Boron: toxic at very low concentrations

•Residual Carbonates (RSC): raises effective SAR/Na%


The Effect of Salinity of Soil Water Availability

Salt Concentrations

0.4% = 4000 mg/l

0.2% = 2000 mg/l

0.1% = 1000 mg/l


Irrigation water quality sodium na hazard
Irrigation Water QualitySodium (Na) Hazard

  • Na generally creates soil infiltration problems before becoming toxic to plants

  • In hot, dry weather conditions sprinkling can lead to leaf burning due to Na toxicity

  • Na reduces soil permeability by dispersing clay particles which seal larger pore spaces

  • Na hazard is greater high clay content soils

  • Na hazard is greater in expanding clays than in non-expanding clays


Infiltration Problem Potential From High Na+ Water

EC = 1305 mmho/cm SAR = 19.0

EC = 1769 mmho/cm SAR = 8.5


Irrigation water quality boron b
Irrigation Water QualityBoron (B)

  • Crops are very sensitive to boron

  • Threshold soil concentration for yield reduction: 0.3 – 10 mg/l

  • Toxic to all vegetation: 30 mg/l

  • Typical Boron toxicity symptoms are spotting, yellowing and/or drying at tips and edges of older leaves


Irrigation water quality residual carbonates rsc
Irrigation Water QualityResidual Carbonates (RSC)

  • Excessive residual bicarbonate and carbonate in irrigation water will combine with Ca and Mg ions in soil

  • This effectively increases the SAR and leads to greater risk of infiltration problems

    RSC = (CO3 + HCO3) - (Ca + Mg)


Salinity units and terms electrical conductivity
Salinity Units and Terms(Electrical Conductivity)

1 mmho/cm = 1 dS/m

1 mmho/m = 1000 mmho/cm

1 dS/m = 1 mS/cm

EC = electrical conductivity of water

ECe = electrical conductivity of saturated extract


Water quality units and terms concentrations
Water Quality Units and Terms(Concentrations)

1 mg/l = 1 ppm

1 mg/l = 1000 mg/l

1mg/l = 1 ppb

TSS = Total Soluble Salts

TDS = Total Dissolved Solids

TSS  TDS

TSS, (mg/l)  640 x EC, (mmho/cm)


Water quality units and terms concentrations1
Water Quality Units and Terms(Concentrations)

meq/l = milliequivalents per liter

epm = equivalents per million

1 meq/l = 1 epm

Ion ppm per meq/l Ion ppm per meq/l

Ca 20 CO3 30

Mg 12 HCO3 61

Na 23 SO4 48

K 39 Cl 35.5


Derived water quality terms
Derived Water Quality Terms

SAR = Sodium Adsorption Ratio

SAR = Na (Ca+Mg)/2

Na% = Sodium Percentage

Na% = (Na x 100) (Ca+Mg+K+Na)

RSC = Residual Sodium Carbonates

RSC = (CO3 + HCO3) - (Ca + Mg)

(the 3 calculations on this page are in meq/l)


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