Synchronizing Clocks at Armageddon
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Synchronizing Clocks at Armageddon Workshop on Archaeological Dating Megiddo, Israel, 20 - 22 June 2010. Sunday June 20: Archeology. 11:00-13:00 Ramat Hashofet: chair Steve Weiner. 11:00-12:00 Opening talk: “Why are we here?”  Eli Piasetzky and Israel Finkelstein , TAU

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Ramat hashofet

Synchronizing Clocks at Armageddon

Workshop on Archaeological Dating

Megiddo, Israel, 20 - 22 June 2010

Sunday June 20: Archeology

11:00-13:00

Ramat Hashofet: chair Steve Weiner

11:00-12:00 Opening talk: “Why are we here?” Eli Piasetzky and Israel Finkelstein, TAU

12:00-13:00 “Never ask a potsherd its age:

from pottery to relative chronology"  Eran Arie, TAU

Next: 16:30-18:30

Detailed tour of Area H

Ramat Hashofet:

Lunch


Ramat hashofet

Synchronizing Clocks at Armageddon

Workshop on Archaeological Dating

Megiddo, Israel, 20 - 22 June 2010

WHY ARE WE HERE?

Eli Piasetzky and Israel Finkelstein


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Outline

The importance of absolute chronology.

The accuracy needed

The idea of the workshop: join forces for acombined analysis.

What can we do here to facilitate such an effort ?

Founding

Israel

Eli

(Include spelling mistakes)


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The importance of absolute chronology; cases in which archaeology and text converge


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The case of biblical history


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The case of Greece and the Levant in the Iron Age


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The case of Egyptian historical chronology, Tell ed-Daba in the delta of the Nile and the destruction of Thera in the Aegean basin


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Why here at Megiddo: Four destructions in 400 years


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Stratigraphy of Megiddo; destructions in blue


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Why are wehere?

K6,M6,H12 VIIA

K4,M4,H9 VIA

H5 VA-IVB

H3 IVA


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radiocarbon dating:

The invention of radiocarbon

Dating

W.F. Libby, 1945

W.F. Libby and J. Arnold, Science 110 (1946) 678

W.F. Libby, Radiocarbon dating (U. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1955)

In this workshop:

Monday 9:30-13:00

Elisabetta Boaretto

Walter Kutchera


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Radiocarbon measurements are reported in terms of :

“Years before present “ yBP

Age calculated Assuming: Atmospheric 14C/12C is constant as it was in 1950 (and the half-life of 14C is 5568 years).

Uncertainties in measurements of a sample from this period:

Conventional radiometric measurement: 15-20 years (1 σ).

AMS: 50-70 years (1 σ).

The problem is translating the results to Calendar age.

Complications are due to the variations in the radiocarbon concentration in the atmosphere


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radiocarbon dating:

Calibration using known dendro-chronological dates.

Bristlecone Pines in the U.S.A

Waterlogged Oaks in Ireland and Germany

Allow extension of the calibration over the last 11,000 years.

1998Radiocarbon

40(3) 1127-1151

Stuiver M., P.J. Reimer and T.F.Braziunas


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Problems due to the calibration procedure:

The calibration curve has an uncertainty of about 10 years in this period that increases the overall uncertainty.

Several possible ranges.

Extended ranges

The calibration destroy the “normal distributions” nature of the results.


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Lachish III was destroyed in Sennacherib's campaign against Judah 701 BCE.

The pottery assemblage of Lachish III (Iron IIB) clearly is later than that of Beth-Shemesh 3 (Iron IIA/B).

Narrowing 14C according to constrains which stem from the Assyrian records

(766-551) (766-745) BCE


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Improving the 14C laboratory measurement do not help so much

68% range


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14C measurement and another independent measurement

Assuming the other measurement yield

750±100 BCE (σ=100 years)

68% range is:

775-609 BCE (166 years)

Assuming the other measurement yield

750±50 BCE (σ=50 years)

68% range is:

776-724 BCE (52 years)


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THE NEW TEL REHOV 14C READINGS:

TWO ALTERNATIVE INTERPRETATIONS WITH THE SAME CALIBRATION CURVE

VI

V

IV

Shishak’s campaign

THE TEL REHOV TEAM (CONVENTIONAL CHRONOLOGY)

Bruins et al.,

Science 2003 300: 315-318

FINKELSTEIN-PIASETZKY (LOW CHRONOLOGY)

VI

V

IV

Israel Finkelstein and Eli Piasetzky

Science Oct 24 2003: 568.


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The average uncalibrated date is: 2768 ± 12 yBP.

32

years

27

years

47 years

48 years


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combined analysis

Do not beat them, join them

The main motto of the workshop:

Not need to find a better / alternative methods to radiocarbon.

Combining the information from different methods can increase the overall dating accuracy and reliability.

Even methods that yield results which are less accurate than radiocarbon can improve significantly our overall dating capability.


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Radiocarbon:

Elisabetta Boaretto and Walter Kutchera

Temporal variation of the Earth’s magnetic field:

Amotz Agnon

Luminescence

Noami Porat

RHX

Miora Wilson and Christopher Hall

What can we do here to facilitate a combined effort ?


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Israel Science Foundation : Inter Universities Research Centers

“The program is designed to support excellent research groups, particular ly in universities, in order to promote broad research activity at the highest level on a large scale…to develop innovative research areas in basic research in universities and encourage research initiatives - disciplinary.”

“The program requires participation of several research teams of independent joint project.”

“Support research focus is eight years”

“The first period of the grant funding (4 years) is up $ 1.5 million in the Natural Sciences and $ 750,000 in the Humanities and Social .Sciences”

~400,000 $ / year

Submission dead line: 1 Dec 2010

EU options ?


Ramat hashofet

Synchronizing Clocks at Armageddon

Workshop on Archaeological Dating

Megiddo, Israel, 20 - 22 June 2010

Sunday June 20: Archeology

11:00-13:00

Ramat Hashofet: chair Steve Weiner

11:00-12:00 Opening talk: “Why are we here?” Eli Piasetzky and Israel Finkelstein, TAU

12:00-13:00 “Never ask a potsherd its age:

from pottery to relative chronology"  Eran Arie, TAU

Next: 16:30-18:30

Detailed tour of Area H

Ramat Hashofet:

Lunch


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