Stress corrosion cracking overview introduction
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Stress Corrosion Cracking Overview & Introduction. David Johnson December 2, 2003. SCC History. Not a recent phenomenon Not exclusive to pipelines Not confined to underground environment Not geographically limited Ammonia cracking of cartridge brass Chloride cracking of stainless steel.

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Stress corrosion cracking overview introduction

Stress Corrosion CrackingOverview & Introduction

David Johnson

December 2, 2003


Scc history

SCC History

  • Not a recent phenomenon

  • Not exclusive to pipelines

  • Not confined to underground environment

  • Not geographically limited

  • Ammonia cracking of cartridge brass

  • Chloride cracking of stainless steel


Requirements for scc

Requirements for SCC


Scc characteristics

SCC Characteristics


Scc characteristics1

SCC Characteristics


Scc near seam weld

SCC near Seam Weld


Metallography of scc

Metallography of SCC


Summary of incident causes

Summary of Incident Causes


Summary of significance

Summary of Significance

  • Natural gas transmission(1985-2002)

    • 15 of 1415 total reported incidents

  • Liquid transmission (PPTS)

    • 5 of 472 in database

  • NEB (Canada) (1992-2002)

    • 3 of 23

    • None since 1995

  • Overall - about 1% of incidents


Why today s interest

Why Today’s Interest?

  • Other, higher significance threats also being addressed


Other threats b31 8s

Other Threats (B31.8S)

  • External Corrosion

  • Internal Corrosion

  • Manufacturing Defects

  • Welding & Fabrication Defects

  • Equipment Failure

  • Third Party / Mechanical Damage

  • Incorrect Operations

  • Weather & Outside Force


External internal corrosion

External & Internal Corrosion

  • CP systems

  • Gas quality standards and monitoring

  • Relatively mature ILI capability

  • Correlated to hydro-test capability

  • Rapidly maturing DA capabilities


Manufacturing construction

Manufacturing & Construction

  • Specifications - materials & construction

  • Advances in materials technology

  • Mill inspections

  • Construction inspections

  • Proof testing


Third party damage

Third Party Damage

  • Dig Safety

  • Common Ground Alliance

  • One Call enforcement

  • Enhanced public awareness


Incorrect operation

Incorrect Operation

  • Operator Qualification programs

  • Qualification of controllers

  • OQ-2

  • B31Q


Equipment failure

Equipment Failure

  • Gaskets, Seals, Valves, Pumps, etc.

  • Generally not pipe

  • Generally confined

  • Specifications, testing, maintenance


Weather outside forces

Weather & Outside Forces

  • Design & Construction

  • Forecasting

  • Monitoring

  • Better understanding of material responses


Why today s interest1

Why Today’s Interest?

  • Other, higher significance threats also being addressed

  • Less apparent understanding

  • Small, but widespread, occurrence

  • Methods of addressing not as mature

    • Inspection, characterization, assessment, management


Today s workshop

Today’s Workshop

  • Share available information

  • Understand application of current management techniques

  • Update on R&D

  • Future Needs

    • Technology development

    • Regulatory approach


Managing scc

Managing SCC

  • Operators have found & managed SCC

  • Tools as prescribed in PLSIA of 2002

    • In-Line Inspection

    • Hydrostatic Testing

    • Direct Assessment

    • Other

  • All have specific capabilities & limitations

  • Gas - Liquid Pipeline Differences


Major challenges

Major Challenges

  • Finding SCC

    • Shallow cracks initially

    • May not be visible to unaided eye

  • Gas - Liquid technology differences

  • Service disruptions

  • Water disposal

  • Assessing what is found

  • Mitigation and Management


Research development

Research & Development

  • Multi-faceted approach

  • Environmental factors

  • Surface preparation & coatings

  • CP system operation

  • Operational factors

  • Material behavior

  • Detection & sizing


Regulatory response

Regulatory Response

  • Determining reasonable response

  • Setting investigation protocols

  • Communication needs


Upcoming panels

Upcoming Panels

  • Operator Experience with Finding and Managing SCC

    • TransCanada

    • Enbridge

    • Kinder Morgan

    • Duke

    • Williams

    • Colonial


Upcoming panels1

Upcoming Panels

  • R & D

    • What’s been done

    • Current work

    • Future needs

    • PRCI

    • ILIA

    • NACE


Upcoming panels2

Upcoming Panels

  • Regulators

    • Concerns & Needs

    • NEB

    • EUB

    • MNOPS

    • USDOT-OPS


Stress corrosion cracking overview introduction

Contacts

[email protected]

[email protected]


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