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Stress Corrosion Cracking Overview & Introduction. David Johnson December 2, 2003. SCC History. Not a recent phenomenon Not exclusive to pipelines Not confined to underground environment Not geographically limited Ammonia cracking of cartridge brass Chloride cracking of stainless steel.

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Stress corrosion cracking overview introduction

Stress Corrosion CrackingOverview & Introduction

David Johnson

December 2, 2003


Scc history
SCC History

  • Not a recent phenomenon

  • Not exclusive to pipelines

  • Not confined to underground environment

  • Not geographically limited

  • Ammonia cracking of cartridge brass

  • Chloride cracking of stainless steel








Summary of significance
Summary of Significance

  • Natural gas transmission(1985-2002)

    • 15 of 1415 total reported incidents

  • Liquid transmission (PPTS)

    • 5 of 472 in database

  • NEB (Canada) (1992-2002)

    • 3 of 23

    • None since 1995

  • Overall - about 1% of incidents


Why today s interest
Why Today’s Interest?

  • Other, higher significance threats also being addressed


Other threats b31 8s
Other Threats (B31.8S)

  • External Corrosion

  • Internal Corrosion

  • Manufacturing Defects

  • Welding & Fabrication Defects

  • Equipment Failure

  • Third Party / Mechanical Damage

  • Incorrect Operations

  • Weather & Outside Force


External internal corrosion
External & Internal Corrosion

  • CP systems

  • Gas quality standards and monitoring

  • Relatively mature ILI capability

  • Correlated to hydro-test capability

  • Rapidly maturing DA capabilities


Manufacturing construction
Manufacturing & Construction

  • Specifications - materials & construction

  • Advances in materials technology

  • Mill inspections

  • Construction inspections

  • Proof testing


Third party damage
Third Party Damage

  • Dig Safety

  • Common Ground Alliance

  • One Call enforcement

  • Enhanced public awareness


Incorrect operation
Incorrect Operation

  • Operator Qualification programs

  • Qualification of controllers

  • OQ-2

  • B31Q


Equipment failure
Equipment Failure

  • Gaskets, Seals, Valves, Pumps, etc.

  • Generally not pipe

  • Generally confined

  • Specifications, testing, maintenance


Weather outside forces
Weather & Outside Forces

  • Design & Construction

  • Forecasting

  • Monitoring

  • Better understanding of material responses


Why today s interest1
Why Today’s Interest?

  • Other, higher significance threats also being addressed

  • Less apparent understanding

  • Small, but widespread, occurrence

  • Methods of addressing not as mature

    • Inspection, characterization, assessment, management


Today s workshop
Today’s Workshop

  • Share available information

  • Understand application of current management techniques

  • Update on R&D

  • Future Needs

    • Technology development

    • Regulatory approach


Managing scc
Managing SCC

  • Operators have found & managed SCC

  • Tools as prescribed in PLSIA of 2002

    • In-Line Inspection

    • Hydrostatic Testing

    • Direct Assessment

    • Other

  • All have specific capabilities & limitations

  • Gas - Liquid Pipeline Differences


Major challenges
Major Challenges

  • Finding SCC

    • Shallow cracks initially

    • May not be visible to unaided eye

  • Gas - Liquid technology differences

  • Service disruptions

  • Water disposal

  • Assessing what is found

  • Mitigation and Management


Research development
Research & Development

  • Multi-faceted approach

  • Environmental factors

  • Surface preparation & coatings

  • CP system operation

  • Operational factors

  • Material behavior

  • Detection & sizing


Regulatory response
Regulatory Response

  • Determining reasonable response

  • Setting investigation protocols

  • Communication needs


Upcoming panels
Upcoming Panels

  • Operator Experience with Finding and Managing SCC

    • TransCanada

    • Enbridge

    • Kinder Morgan

    • Duke

    • Williams

    • Colonial


Upcoming panels1
Upcoming Panels

  • R & D

    • What’s been done

    • Current work

    • Future needs

    • PRCI

    • ILIA

    • NACE


Upcoming panels2
Upcoming Panels

  • Regulators

    • Concerns & Needs

    • NEB

    • EUB

    • MNOPS

    • USDOT-OPS


Contacts

[email protected]

[email protected]


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