Today
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 32

Today PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 109 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

CS 321 Human-Computer Interaction. Today. Contextual Inquiry CD Ch. 2, 3, 4. Observation Techniques and Field notes “Using Ethnography in Contextual Design” Observation Exercise. Next time. Small Group Discussion The Psychopathology of Everyday Things” by D. Norman. Contextual Inquiry.

Download Presentation

Today

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Today

CS 321 Human-Computer Interaction

Today

  • Contextual Inquiry

    • CD Ch. 2, 3, 4

  • Observation Techniques and Field notes

    • “Using Ethnography in Contextual Design”

    • Observation Exercise

Next time

  • Small Group Discussion

  • The Psychopathology of Everyday Things” by D. Norman


Contextual inquiry

Contextual Inquiry

  • Learning what users do and what they care about.


Can you recall an incident where the design of something has caused a problem

  • What was it about the design that caused a problem?

Can you recall an incident where the design of something has caused a problem?


Today

How do you turn on the shower?

  • This has got to be the worst design ever for a shower control. It is so bad there is a sticker on the faucet giving instructions for how to make the water come out of the shower. You'll never guess how you turn on the shower. You reach under the faucet, grab the part where the water comes out and pull down on it!

  • Design suggestion

  • This design is bad for a number of reasons. One is that nothing else works like this. Another is that the "control" for turning on the shower doesn't look anything like a control, so the control is basically hidden. Frequently, when devices come with instructions stuck on them, there is a problem with the design.

www.baddesigns.com


Today

How do you eject a disk?

  • As a means of deleting files and documents, the Macintosh trashcan is a perfectly intuitive metaphor. Unfortunately, the designers decided to extend the trashcan metaphor to include the completely counterintuitive function of ejecting diskettes: drag an image of the diskette to the trashcan to eject it from the computer.

  • The Macintosh simply took the trashcan metaphor too far. They gave the trashcan magical powers that are completely incompatible with the established metaphorical association of deleting files. As a result, new users express anxiety and dismay at the metaphor, and even experienced users express reluctance to use the metaphor: “I don’t want to delete the files on the diskette, I just want the computer to spit it out.”


How do people reason about what they do

How do People reason aboutwhat they do?

  • Reasoning requires a Knowledge Representation (KR)

  • A Knowledge Representation Language (KRL) is a theory of Reasoning (cognition)

  • KRL = A structure to encode facts

    +

    Methods for combining old facts to derive new facts

  • Examples :

    • Formal Logic

    • Neural Network

    • Rule-Based Reasoning

    • Case-Based Reasoning

    • Model-Based Reasoning


Mental models

Mental Models

  • The models people have of themselves, others, the environment, and the things with which they interact

  • “Small-scale-model of External Reality”

    • Consider alternatives

    • Try out situations

    • Use knowledge of past events in dealing with the present and future

  • Provides predictive and explanatory power for understanding how things interact.


Structural and functional models

Structural and Functional Models

  • Structural Models

    • An internalized form of a system

  • Functional Models

    • Internalized procedural knowledge of how a system works

  • Examples:

    • How stop lights are between your house and SIUE?

    • How look-up someone’s phone number?


Conceptual model

System

Documentation

Interface

Conceptual Model

  • A reasonably accurate and consistent representation of the target system.

  • Design Goal –

    • Devise the conceptual model that reflects a user’s mental model

User’s model of task

User’s model of system

Conceptual Model

Designer

User

System Image


Contextual inquiry1

Contextual Inquiry

  • Field data-gathering technique

    • Studies a select number of individuals in depth to arrive at an understanding of work practice across all customers

      - Ethnography

  • Core Idea:

    • Go to where the user works

    • Observe (participate)

    • Discuss


Four principles of ci

Four Principles of CI

  • Context

  • Partnership

  • Interpretation

  • Focus


Context

Context

  • Get as close as possible to the ideal situation of being physically present.

  • Gather data of an ongoing experience

  • Gather concrete data

    • Avoid abstract data

    • Avoid summary experience

    • Use real artifacts

  • If a retrospective account is necessary, listen for holes and ask questions.


Partnership

Partnership

  • Develop a collaborative relationship in trying to understand the work

  • Relationship Models

    • Interviewer/Interviewee

    • Expert/Novice

    • Guest/Host

    • Parent/Child

    • Master/Apprentice


Interpretation

Interpretation

  • Designs are built on the interpretation of facts

  • From facts, the designer makes a hypothesis about what the fact means (interpretation)

  • The hypothesis has an implication for the design

  • Share interpretations & design ideas with the user

    • Validate your understanding

    • Helps links design to the interpretation


Focus

Focus

  • Point of view the interview takes while studying work.

    • Keep conversation on topic

    • Guide the user toward parts of the work relevant to the design

  • Watch for interpersonal triggers

    • Surprises

    • Contradictions

    • Nods


In class exercise

In Class Exercise

  • Break-up into six groups (as evenly divided as possible)

  • Swap war stories about:

    • Problems you have using a software program

  • Choose the one everyone in the group thinks is the best story


Gathering observation data ethnographic research

Gathering Observation Data: Ethnographic Research

Ethnography is a research technique in anthropology that involves the study of groups and people within the context of their everyday activities.

The approach requires the researcher become a “participant-observer”, systematically recording observations and experiences.


Ethnographic research

Ethnographic Research

  • Data gathered within natural setting.

  • Develop a descriptive understanding.

  • Setting includes dynamic network of inter-related variables.

  • Qualitative research.

Famous Ethnographers:

Margaret Mead

Jane Goodall


Today

Ethnography and Design

In the context of design, the aim of ethnographic research is to develop a thorough understanding of current work practices as a basis for the design of computer support.


Characteristics of ethnographic research

Characteristics of Ethnographic Research

  • Researcher is the instrument.

  • Data gathered in natural setting.

  • Data gathered through observations, interviews, data analysis, and questionnaires.

  • Data gathered using more than one of these sources and validated through cross checking.


Stages of collection

Stages of Collection

  • Informal stage: Collection of data; insights used to modify data collection and refine research questions

  • Formal stage: sorting, organizing, and reducing the volume of the data

  • “Thick Description”: identifying patterns, interpreting causes, consequences, and relationships to understand and provide explanation

  • Description should be sufficiently realistic for others to see the implications


Observations

Observations


Observational data

Observational Data

  • Rough materials collected during observation.

  • Obtain relevant data needed to improve and/or change systems.

  • Methods of recording data: written notes, audiotape, sketches, photographs, and/or video tapes.


Focus of observations

Focus of Observations

  • Physical setting.

  • Activities.

  • Human, social environment.

  • Formal interactions.

  • Informal interactions.

  • Verbal & Non-verbal communications.

  • What does not happen.


Field notes

Field Notes


Characteristics of field notes

Characteristics of Field Notes

  • Organize data

  • Accurate.

  • Detailed, thorough.

  • Descriptive.

  • Content part and reflective part.


Format divided page

Format: Divided Page

The students sat quietly in the darkened lab. One student sat in front of each of the multimedia computers. Each computer faced the back wall where the image from the instructor’s computer was projected. The teacher demonstrated a step with the software then had the children do the same step on their computer. As each child finished, the child waited for the teacher to demonstrate the next step. . . .

How does this relate

to the teacher’s

learning style?


Format large left margin

Format: Large Left Margin

How does this relate to teacher’s preferred Learning style?

The students sat quietly in the darkened lab. One student sat in front of each of the multimedia computers. Each computer faced the back wall where the image from the instructor’s computer was projected. The teacher demonstrated a step with the software then had the children do the same step on their computer. As each child finished, the child waited for the teacher to demonstrate the next step. . . .


Format separate files

Format: Separate Files

Save descriptive part of field notes in one file. Use large left margin.

Save reflective part of field notes in second file.


Keep in mind

Keep in Mind

  • Transcribe data into field notes as soon as possible after observation.

  • Don’t discuss observations with your team until you have written the field notes.

  • Find quiet place to work that contains necessary equipment.

  • Allow sufficient time for transcription and interpretation.


Exercise

Exercise

Observation/Note Taking Assignment

  • Purpose:

    • To observe and describe a work setting, an individual working within that setting, and the actions of the individual.

    • To practice developing field notes and interpreting observation data


  • Login