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“DON’T LAUGH AT ME!”. “I’m the kid on every playground that is always chosen last.”. PRACTICAL INFLUENCES OF PHILOSOPHY. CHAPTER 11. What comes to mind when you are asked , “What is your philosophy of education?”. What will you teach? How will you teach it? How will you evaluate it?

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  • “I’m the kid on every playground that is always chosen last.”

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What comes to mind when you are asked , “What is your philosophy of education?”

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  • What will you teach?

  • How will you teach it?

  • How will you evaluate it?

    Your philosophy will help determine your course of action.

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“99% of the kids you deal with are great kids!The other 1% simply need your love and understanding.”

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  • The study of the nature of knowledge and existence and the principles of moral and ethical value.

  • The general principles of a field of study. (Philosophy of education)

  • Wisdom or insight applied to life itself.

  • The philosophical teachings of a group.

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Social Perspectives – The process of learning how to function in society (families, school…)

  • The Fundamentalist Perspective – sees society as sharing a common set of values. This leads to institutions such as families, schools, govt. & religious bodies that promote social cohesion

  • The Conflict Perspective – sees schools as places where contending interest groups compete for educational advantage. They look for potential winners & losers when they look to change school programs.

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Roles of Schools in Society

  • Transmission of the general culture

  • Dissemination of knowledge

  • Preparation of the world of work

  • Promotion of social and group relationships

  • Encouragement of social change.

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Philosophical Perspectives -Axiology

  • Axiology focuses on questions of what ought to be

  • Is there a particular standard of moral behavior that you, the teacher, should emphasize? Many students have concluded that life is not worth living.Will you stress academics or moral behavior

  • How should life be lived?

  • Does life have any meaning?

  • What is the highest good?

  • What is moral & immoral?

  • What is beauty?

  • How should a person behave?

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Philosophical Perspectives - LOGIC

  • Logic deals with the relationships among ideas and is used to differentiate between valid and fallacious thinking.

  • Deductive reasoning – Make sure students have a solid grasp of principles or ideas through example. Direct instruction, advanced organizers, and lecture are teaching strategies that are often used.

  • Inductive reasoning – Gather a large number of examples before instruction begins to represent the principal you want to get across to learners. Inquiry approaches & discovery learning are teaching strategies used.

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Educational Applications of Philosophical Ideas

Be thinking – What will your own personal philosophy of education look like?

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PROGRESSIVISM -John Dewey – Early 1900s

  • Teacher - assists learner- is a facilitator -emphasis on problem solving, not memorization

  • Strategies-because knowledge is tentative, students help plan what and how they will learn

  • Curriculum - skills attainment – community field trips

  • Management - lots of freedom to choose

    Human beings are good & someone who is educated, has the insights to adapt to change

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ESSENTIALISM – William Bagley (1941)

  • Teacher - teaches basic skills, courses taught separately, higher thinking skills encouraged, competency testing, teachers character must be outstanding; dates back to Ben Franklin “a can-do attitude” Lots of lecture – impart information to students – Students to learn & retain factual inform.

  • Strategies - lots of paper and pencil, reading classics, skill and drill - teacher authority – hard work & discipline.

  • Curriculum - reading, writing, and math, science and social studies in high school-don’t dilute with trivial subjects-arts and humanities frills-not preparing for adulthood

  • Management - student follows directions and behaves appropriately – Do not prepare for citizenship & work

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  • Teacher - searching for truth and unchanging principles, avid reader and writer, condemns essentialists for memorizing what is always changing-want mastery of lasting truths

  • Strategies - stresses great works, art, literature, music-small group discussions

  • Curriculum-focus on literature, emphasis on getting concepts in math, science, social studies.

    Certain basic truths/concepts must be mastered doesn’t want vocational training

  • Management-behavior expected to be in a rational manner. Came along after 1950

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  • Relatively recent model – has influenced education less than the other basic philosophies. Accountability & measuring outcomes are not important.

  • People should have freedom to make choices and identify their own reasons for existing. Each person must define truth, beauty, right & wrong for himself.

  • Sudbury Model – Schools place great emphasis on personal freedom – Learners shape their own experiences.

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  • Teacher - liberal thinker - challenges rules of the school district – wants teacher to raise issues, but not be a transmitter of knowledge.

  • Strategies - students encouraged to solve social problems-social reform

  • Curriculum - heavily multicultural-leads students to critically appraise all elements of society -

  • Management - liberal discipline

    Want to improve the human condition through reform – believe society has lost its way

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  • Sensitivity toward the varieties of individual and cultural diversity

  • Disposition and ability to collaborate ethically and effectively with others

  • Reverence for learning and seriousness of personal, professional, and public purpose

  • Respect for learners of all ages, with special regard for children and adolescents

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  • Wide general knowledge and deep knowledge of the content to be taught

  • Knowledge and appreciation of the diversity among learners

  • Understanding what affects learning and appropriate teaching strategies

  • Interest in and ability to seek out informational, technological, and collegial resources

  • Contagious intellectual enthusiasm and courage enough to be creative

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