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CHAPTER 8 Deviance and Social Control PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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CHAPTER 8 Deviance and Social Control. Section 1: Deviance Section 2: Crime. Section 1: Deviance. Objectives:. Explain the nature and social functions of deviance. Compare the theories that have been proposed to explain deviance. Section 1: Deviance. Nature of Deviance.

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CHAPTER 8 Deviance and Social Control

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CHAPTER 8Deviance and Social Control

Section 1: Deviance

Section 2: Crime


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Section 1: Deviance

Objectives:

  • Explain the nature and social functions of deviance.

  • Compare the theories that have been proposed to explain deviance.


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Section 1: Deviance

Nature of Deviance

  • Because there are so many norms governing behavior, occasional violations are unavoidable

  • What is considered deviant varies from society to society


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Section 1: Deviance

Social Functions of Deviance

  • Clarifying Norms – defines the boundaries of acceptable behavior

  • Unifying the Group – serves to draw the line between conforming members of society and “outsiders” – the nonconforming members

  • Diffusing Tension – acts that allow individuals to relieve tension without disrupting the basic fabric of society


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Section 1: Deviance

Social Functions of Deviance

(continued)

4. Promoting Social Change – can help prompt social change by identifying problem areas

5. Providing Jobs – provides legitimate jobs for a wide range of people


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Section 1: Deviance

Theories of Deviance

  • Functionalists – as the natural outgrowth of the values, norms, and structures of society

  • Conflict Theorists – as a result of competition and social inequality

  • Interactionists – as either natural in people with weak ties to the community (control theory), as a learned behavior (cultural transmission theory), or as a label (labeling theory)


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SECTION 1

Theory

Perspective

Questions

How do individuals respond to culturally approved goals and the legitimate means of achieving them? (conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, rebellion)

Functionalist

Strain

What is the result of competition and social inequality? (deviance) Who decides what is deviant? (ruling classes)

Conflict

Conflict

Why do people conform to norms? (The strength of social ties determines conformity.)

Control

Interactionist

How do people learn conformity or deviance? (through socialization, or interaction with others) Where does this learning mainly occur? (primary groups)

Cultural Transmission

How do people become identified as deviant? (through secondary deviance, or being labeled as deviant)

Labeling

Deviance


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Section 2: Crime

Objectives:

  • Identify the principal types of crime in the United States.

  • Explain the characteristics of the American criminal-justice system.


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Section 2: Crime

Principal Types of Crime in the U.S.

  • Violent Crime– includes murder, robbery; most victims are African Americans

    • Robbery-larceny from the person or presence of another by violence or threat.

  • Crime Against Property – includes burglary, larceny, vehicle theft; more common than violent crimes.

    • Burglary- the act of breaking and entering a dwelling at night to commit a felony

      • Felony- a crime for which the punishment in federal law may be death or imprisonment for mote than one year.

    • Larceny-the unlawful taking and removal of another person's property.

  • Victimless Crime – includes prostitution, gambling, illegal drug use; offender is the only victim


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    Section 2: Crime

    Principal Types of Crime in the U.S.

    (continued)

    • White Collar Crime – committed by high-status individuals in the course of their professions; includes fraud, tax evasion, embezzlement

    • Organized Crime – the pursuit of crime as a big business

    Bernie Madoff


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    SECTION 2

    Crime

    Question:

    What are some characteristics of the American criminal-justice system?


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    SECTION 2

    AMERICAN CRIMINAL-JUSTICE SYSTEM

    Crime

    Police

    • Have the most control over who is arrested for crimes.

    • The use of police discretion, has raised the controversial issue of racial profiling


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    SECTION 2

    AMERICAN CRIMINAL-JUSTICE SYSTEM

    Crime

    Courts

    • Determines the accused’s guilt or innocence in a court trial.

    • The court assigns a punishment.

    • 90 percent of cases are actually settles through plea bargaining.


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    SECTION 2

    AMERICAN CRIMINAL-JUSTICE SYSTEM

    Crime

    Corrections

    • Includes probation, imprisonment, and parole, which serves four functions:

    • Retribution- Revenge for the victims and for society.

    • Deterrence- Discourage offenders and non offenders from committing future crimes.

    • Rehabilitation- Serves to reform criminals so that they can return to society as law abiding citizens.

    • Social protection- Limit the freedom of criminals so

    • they cannot commit additional crimes.


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    SECTION 2

    AMERICAN CRIMINAL-JUSTICE SYSTEM

    Crime

    Juvenile-Justice System

    • Applies to offenders younger than 18.

    • Guarantees juvenile defendants the same legal rights and privileges as adults.

    • Often provides more services.


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    SECTION 2

    AMERICAN CRIMINAL-JUSTICE SYSTEM

    Police

    Courts

    have the most control over who is arrested for crimes; use police discretion, which has raised the controversial issue of racial profiling

    determines the accused’s guilt or innocence in a court trial and then assigns a punishment; actually settles 90 percent of cases through plea bargaining

    Corrections

    Juvenile-Justice System

    includes probation, imprisonment, parole; serves four functions—retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, and social protection

    applies to offenders younger than 18; guarantees juvenile defendants the same legal rights and privileges as adults; often provides more services

    Crime


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    CHAPTER 8

    Chapter Wrap-Up

    • 1.What are the functions of deviance?

    • 2.How does labeling theory differ from other theories of deviance?

    • 3.Describe the five general categories of crime. Be sure to list the types of crime in each category.

    • 4.What purposes does the corrections system fulfill? How does the juvenile-justice system meet these same purposes?


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