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Valence Electrons & Bohr Diagrams. Atomic Structure. Atoms have a nucleus that contains Protons and Neutrons Electrons are contained in shells that surround the nucleus An atom is made of mostly empty space Protons have a positive charge Electrons have a negative charge

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Valence Electrons & Bohr Diagrams

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Valence Electrons & Bohr Diagrams


Atomic Structure

  • Atoms have a nucleus that contains Protons and Neutrons

  • Electrons are contained in shells that surround the nucleus

  • An atom is made of mostly empty space

  • Protons have a positive charge

  • Electrons have a negative charge

  • Neutrons are Neutral


Valence Electrons

  • Each electron shell can hold a certain number of electrons

  • Electron shells are filled from the inside out

  • Noble Gases have full outer electron shells

  • All other elements have partiallyfilled outer electron shells


Valence Electrons

  • The electrons in the outer most electron shell are called valence electrons

  • The shell containing electrons that is furthest from the nucleus is called the valence shell

  • The number of electron shells with electrons is the same as the period number


Noble Gas Stability

  • Noble gases are usually unreactive

  • This is because they have full valence shells

  • An element with a full valence shell is a happy element 

  • For two atoms to join together atoms must gain, lose or share electrons

  • Elements with full valence shells do not easily gain or lose electrons


Noble Gas Stability

  • Atoms want to gain stability

  • Atoms will try to gain or lose electrons to have a full valence shell

  • Metals try to lose electrons

  • Non-Metals try to gain electrons


Becoming An Ion

  • Electrons are negatively charged

  • Protons are positively charged

  • Neutral atoms do not have a charge because the number of protons is the same as the number of electrons

  • When atoms gain or lose electrons they become positively or negatively charged

  • An atom with a charge is called an Ion


Bohr Models

  • Niels Bohr created a visual model of the atom to make them easy to understand

  • A Bohr Model contains a central nucleus surrounded by electron shells

  • For each model you state the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and draw a dot on the electron shells for each electron


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