As level physical education skill acquisition revision guide
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AS Level Physical Education Skill Acquisition Revision Guide. Ability and Skill. ‘Abilities are enduring characteristics which underline a persons potential to acquire skill in one sport or another’. Ability and Skill . A bility is something you are born with, it is innate .

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AS Level Physical Education Skill Acquisition Revision Guide

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As level physical education skill acquisition revision guide

AS Level Physical Education Skill AcquisitionRevision Guide


Ability and skill

Ability and Skill

‘Abilities are enduring characteristics which underline a persons potential to acquire skill in one sport or another’


Ability and skill1

Ability and Skill

  • Ability is something you are born with, it is innate.

  • Abilities are enduring (long-lasting) characteristics which underlie a person's potential to acquire skill in one sport or another.

  • To be skilful in one particular sport requires the person to have a specific profile of abilities.


Abilities

Abilities

  • perceptual ability - the ability to detect and use different types of stimuli

  • conceptual ability - the ability to think through skills quickly

  • gross abilities - the ability to move the larger parts of the body quickly

  • fine abilities - the ability to perform delicate movements

  • kinaesthetic ability - the ability to detect the positions of your limbs in space


Perceptual motor ability

Finger dexterity

Response integration

Response orientation

Reaction time

Speed of movement

Manual dexterity

Perceptual Motor Ability

Those that involve processing information and implementing movement


Gross motor ability

Static Strength

Dynamaic Flexibility

Dynamic Strength

Stamina

Trunk Strength

Explosive Strength

Gross Motor Ability

Those that involve movement and often linked to fitness


Skill

Skill

"The learned ability to bring about predetermined results with maximum certainty, often with the minimum outlay of time or energy or both.“ Knapp

Consistent

Learned

Goal Directed

Characteristics of skill

Economic

Aesthetic

Recognisable

Fluent

Efficient


As level physical education skill acquisition revision guide

What perceptual skills does the player on the ball need to be successful?


Types of skill

Types of Skill

  • “ Skill is an organised, coordinated activity in relation to an object or situation which involves a whole chain of sensory, central and motor mechanisms” Welford

  • Cognitive – skills that involve thought process and intellectual ability. What to do, which action to use and when!

  • Perceptual – Skills that involve selecting, interpreting and making sense of information from our senses.

  • Psych-motor – movement decided upon and controlled by the brain. Mixture of motor and perceptual.


Open closed skills

Open/closed skills

Open skills

Closed skills

Unpredictable environment

Predictable environment

Decisions to be made

No decisions - same skill


Self externally paced skills

Self/externally paced skills

Self-paced skills

Externally-paced skills

Performer decides when to start

Start determined by outside agency

Performer decides speed of movements

Speed of movement decided by others


Discrete serial continuous skills

Discrete skills

Serial skills

Continuous skills

Discrete/serial/ continuous skills

Distinct beginning and end

Series of discrete skills

Repetitive - no beginning and end


Gross fine skills

Fine skills

Gross skills

Gross/fine skills

Uses large muscle groups

Uses small muscle groups


Information processing

Information processing

A simplified model

Input – stimuli to sense organs

Decide – what stimuli mean and what to do

Output – motor programme runs muscles


3 stages to decision making

3 stages to decision-making

  • Stimulus identification stage

    Decide what information represents

  • Response selection stage

    Decide on an appropriate response

  • Response programming stage

    Decide how to organise response


Expanded ip model

Expanded IP model

Sense organs

Muscles -movement

Stimulus identification

Response selection

Response programming


Anything missing

Stimulus identification

Response selection

Response programming

Senses

Movement

Feedback

Anything missing?

Memory


Input

Input

3 main senses involved in sport

4

  • Eyes/vision/visual sense

  • Ears/hearing/auditory sense

  • Touch/proprioception

  • Body awareness / kinaesthetic sense


Perception

Perception

Three components/stages

  • Detection

  • Comparison

  • Recognition


Selective attention

Selective attention

Idea of single channel hypothesis


Memory

Memory

  • Short-term sensory storage

  • Short-term memory

  • Long-term memory


Characteristics

Characteristics

  • STSS – lasts 0.5-1 seconds; requires immediate attention or is lost

  • STM – only attended information; limited capacity and duration; DCR occurs in STM; rehearsed information goes to LTM

  • LTM – unlimited capacity; requires rehearsal, meaningfulness, speed of learning and overlearning to be remembered/retrieved


Expanded model of ip

Feedback

Expanded model of IP

Long-term memory

Short-term memory

Sense organs

Stimulus

Perception

Decision

Movement


Typical question

Typical question

(a)A basic information processing system consists of perception, translation and effector control. Explain what you understand by these terms, using appropriate examples from volleyball.(6 marks)

(b)Selective attention is an important part of information processing. How can a coach improve a player’s selective attention?(3 marks)


Answer

Answer

Perception – make sense of incoming information;

e.g the ball has left the opposition server’s hand/equiv;

Translation – decision making;

E.g. the ball is at chest height I will use a set/volley/equiv;

Effector control – motor programme/doing the movement;

Send impulses to the muscular system in order for the movement to be carried out;

E.g hands high/viewfinder/extend the legs.

(1 mark for description and 1 mark for appropriate example)

(d) Increase intensity of the stimulus/e.g’s;

Motivate and arouse the performer;

Highlight/ focus cues;

Learn to ignore irrelevant stimulus;


Decision making

Decision-making

  • Response time

Time taken from initiation of signal to completion of movement

Time taken from start of movement to completion of movement

  • Movement time

Time taken from initiation of signal to beginning of movement

  • Reaction time


Reaction time

Reaction time

Simple – single stimulus or single response

Choice – several stimuli or responses to be selected from

Hick’s Law – more choices more time needed to decide


Reaction time implications

Reaction time - implications

Avoid repeating movements/same response – becomes SRT for opponent – easy to react to

Choice RT – provide variety of responses – means opponent has to select from many stimuli

Practice – develop as wide a range of actions as possible


Psychological refractory period

Psychological refractory period

Unable to respond to second stimulus until first stimulus has been responded to – because of single channel

Basis of ‘faking’ or ‘dummying’

Give a signal concerning intended movement, then move another way – opponent responds to first signal before responding to second signal, by which time you are long gone!


Typical question1

Typical question

In team games such as basketball or netball, performers need to make rapid decisions.

(i) Give an appropriate example from a team game of simple reaction time and choice reaction time.(2 marks)

(ii) The ‘Psychological Refractory Period’ often occurs in team games. Explain, using an

example of this from a team game, how and why it occurs.(3 marks)


Answer1

Answer

(i) SRT - movement to whistle/equiv;

CRT - movements of own players on court and who to pass to/equiv;

(ii) The use of a deception/fake/dummy/in a named team game situation/equiv;

Only process one item of information at a time/equiv;

Response to later information likely to be delayed/equiv;

Due to responding to first stimulus.


Feedback

Feedback

3 functions

  • Change incorrect response

  • Reinforce correct response

  • Motivate performer


Types of feedback

Types of feedback

  • Intrinsic

  • Extrinsic

  • Knowledge of results

  • Knowledge of performance

  • Immediate/delayed

  • Concurrent/terminal

  • Sourced from within

  • Sourced from outside

  • Concerning end result of action

  • Concerning movement pattern

  • Before/after completion

  • During/at end of action


Typical question2

Typical question

Swimmers will experience different types of feedback both during and after a performance.

(a)Knowledge of resultsandknowledge of performance are two types of feedback. Explain these two types of feedback.(2 marks)

(b)What are the three main benefits of feedback to a swimmer?(3 marks)

(c) What are the characteristics of ‘effective feedback’ for a swimmer?(4 marks)


Answer2

Answer

(a) KR – outcome of action;

KP – information about movement/kinesthesis/feel of movement/intrinsic;

(b) Correct errors/improve technique/highlight weaknesses;

Reinforcement/illustrate success/highlight strengths;

Motivation/self-confidence;

(c) Process only limited amount of information/succinct/short;

Clear information/accurate/correct/relevant/simple;

Immediate;

Individualised;

Different forms – verbal and visual;

Intrinsic;

Terminal better for beginners/concurrent for elite;

Positive for beginners/Negative for advanced;


Open loop theory

Open loop theory

Executive

(decides)

Effector

(does it)


Motor programmes open loop theory

Motor programmes - Open loop theory

  • No feedback.

  • Pre-planned actions.

  • Explains fast, ‘ballistic’ movements

  • Stored as executive programmes that simply run and cannot be adjusted


Closed loop theory

Motor command

Executive

Effector

Feedback

Closed loop theory


Adam s closed loop theory

Adam’s Closed loop theory

  • Feedback involved.

  • ‘Memory trace’ recalls previous correct responses and initiates movement

  • ‘Perceptual trace’ as a model of correctness that is adjusted and strengthened through practice.

  • Does not account for actions too fast for feedback

  • Does not explain limits of memory


Schema theory

Schema theory

  • Four relationships (schema) stored for every movement.

  • Initial conditions

  • General motor programme

  • Knowledge of results

  • Sensory consequences


Schema theory1

Schema theory

  • Recall schema provides motor programme – 1 and 2

  • Recognition schema evaluates responses – 3 and 4


Typical question3

Typical question

(a)In relation to skilled performance, what do you understand by the terms motor programme and subroutines? Give appropriate examples from a tennis serve.

(3 marks)

(b)Schmidt’s schema theory is based on four sources of information which are used to modify motor programmes. List the four sources of information.(4 marks)

(c)How can a coach organise practices to enable a schema to develop?(3 marks)


Answer3

Answer

(a) Motor programme – Controls movement/set of instructions/made up of subroutines/plan of action stored in memory (long term)/equiv;

Subroutines – Sequences of movement, which are performed automatically/isolated aspects of a movement/practised in parts/equiv;

Grip/footwork/backward swing/forward swing/ball toss/contact with ball/follow through; (minimum of three examples for 1 mark)

(b) (Knowledge of) initial conditions/set up/requirement of skills;

(Knowledge of) response specifications/demands/what is needed;

Sensory consequences/Kinesthesis/Knowledge of Performance/KP;

Movement outcomes/Knowledge of Results/KR;


Answer4

Answer

(c) Practice to be varied/avoid blocked or massed practice/examples;

Should include plenty of information;

Should have feedback;

Should be realistic to the game/activity;

Should include transferable elements;

Becoming more challenging/more difficult.


Answer5

Answer

(c) Practice to be varied/avoid blocked or massed practice/examples;

Should include plenty of information;

Should have feedback;

Should be realistic to the game/activity;

Should include transferable elements;

Becoming more challenging/more difficult.


Answer6

Answer

(c) Practice to be varied/avoid blocked or massed practice/examples;

Should include plenty of information;

Should have feedback;

Should be realistic to the game/activity;

Should include transferable elements;

Becoming more challenging/more difficult.


Learning

Learning

  • A relatively permanent change in behaviour

  • Seen to have occurred in performance of skill

  • Improvements in performance seen as a learning curve


Learning curve

no improvement

Performance deteriorates

Period of rapid improvement

little early improvement

Learning curve

Learning plateau


Causes of a learning plateau

Causes of a learning plateau

  • Fatigue

  • Loss of motivation/boredom

  • Technical deficiencies


Preventing a learning plateau

Preventing a learning plateau

  • If fatigued – Rest/recovery periods

  • To motivate - Rewards/goals

  • Limited skill - Change style/method of practice or isolate and correct faulty technique


Learning theories

Learning theories

  • The production of a stimulus produces an appropriate response (associationist or S-R theories)

  • Conditioning theories - link between stimulus and response (bond) strengthened by reinforcement

  • Classical and operant conditioning


Reinforcement

Reinforcement

  • Positive reinforcement is praise

  • Increases probability of repeat of behaviour/success

  • Strengthens S-R bond

  • Negative reinforcement also encourages repeat of success

  • But involves removal of negative/ unpleasant stimulus when desired response occurs - coach/crowd stop barracking


Punishment

Punishment

  • Punishment is used to stop repeat of undesired/unsuccessful behaviour/ attempt

  • Inhibits S-R bond strengthening


Examples

Examples

  • positive reinforcement – the games player makes an accurate pass (behaviour) and the teacher shouts ‘nice pass’ (reinforced)

  • negative reinforcement – the teacher who constantly shouts from the touchline suddenly stops shouting; the players know that their behaviour must now be correct

  • punishment - giving a red card for a foul in a game serves to prevent that behaviour happening again


Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning

  • Learn unconditioned response to conditioned stimulus e.g. Pavlov’s dogs

  • Rare in sport

  • Can be used to reduce anxiety prior to performance – relaxation through calming phrase and physical cue


Operant conditioning

Operant conditioning

  • Trial and error learning - behaviour reinforced - success/praise motivates to repeat success

  • Thorndike’s laws

    • exercise - rehearse to strengthen bond

    • effect - rewards strengthen bond

    • readiness - performer able to do task


Operant conditioning1

Operant conditioning

  • Operant conditioning = trial and error learning

  • Based on S-R relationship

  • Coach manipulates environment to achieve desired response (shaping) – target/feeder/conditions/etc

  • Uses reinforcement to bring about desired response


Observational learning

Observational Learning

  • Copying/mimicing another's behaviour/action

  • Requires learning to be:

  • Attentive

  • Capable of remembering (retention)

  • Capable of performing (production)

  • Willing to learn (motivation)


Cognitive theories

Cognitive theories

  • Insight learning - concerned with understanding rather than linking S-R

  • Work out what is happening - whole practice, rather than learning skills in isolation


Stages of learning

Stages of Learning

  • Cognitive – understanding nature of task; develop motor programme; requires demonstration from coach; feedback is extrinsic; many errors

  • Associative – practice stage; less visual more proprioceptive; fewer but repetitive errors

  • Autonomous – skill mastered; little conscious effort; processing used for strategies rather than skill


Transfer of learning

Transfer of Learning

  • Positive - benefits

  • Negative - hindrance

  • Bilateral – from one side to other

  • Proactive – current skill helps future skill

  • Retroactive – current skill improves past skill


Teaching styles presentation of practice types of practice and methods of guidance

Teaching Styles, Presentation of Practice, Types of Practice and Methods of Guidance


Teaching styles

Teaching Styles

  • Command

  • Reciprocal

  • Discovery

  • Problem Solving


Command

Command

  • Teacher makes all the decisions with no input from the learners

  • Clear instructions and objectives, large groups catered for, control and discipline maintained

  • Possible lack of understanding, little social interaction, little creativity, limited individual feedback


Command1

Command

  • Used when:

  • Groups are large or undisciplined

  • Novice performers need to be taught recognised techniques

  • Dangerous situations

  • Complex skills


Reciprocal style

Reciprocal Style

  • Most decisions made by teacher with some learner input

  • Instructions and objectives are clear, social interaction skills are developed, some individual feedback received, self-confidence increased

  • May be difficult for beginners, performers may lack communication skills, unable to analyse movement, difficult to monitor for teacher


Reciprocal

Reciprocal

  • Used when:

  • Learners are more experienced

  • Simple skills are involved

  • Limited danger is present

  • Time is available


Discovery

Discovery

  • Teacher guides performer to find the correct movement by providing information, giving specific clues or asking questions

  • Encourages creativity and decision making skills, responsibility for own learning, increased motivation and self confidence

  • Time consuming, difficult for those who lack creativity, progress of large groups is difficult to monitor


Discovery1

Discovery

  • Used when:

  • Creativity is required

  • There is no right or wrong answer

  • More experienced performers are involved


Problem solving

Problem Solving

  • Problem set by teacher and solved by student. There is no right or wrong answer

  • Encourages creativity and develops cognitive skills


Choose a style

Choose a style!

Novice performer throwing javelin

Novice performer developing a gym routine

Experienced basketball players practicing free throws in a practice session

Sixth from students rock climbing for the first time

Year 9 students practicing the smash in badminton, for the first time, in a 50 minute lesson

Year 9 students practicing the smash in badminton, for the third lesson in a series or four

An outside coach coming in to take a kick boxing lesson at a club for the first time


Choose a style1

Choose a style!

What have you based you decision on?


Factors to consider

Factors to consider

  • Nature of performer – experience, stage of learning, age, gender, size of group

  • Nature of task – open or closed skill, gross or fine, discrete serial or continuous, self or externally paced

  • Experience – amount of knowledge, personality, relationship with group

  • Environmental conditions – facilities, time available, purpose of the session


Presentation of practice

Presentation of practice

  • Whole Learning

  • Part Learning

  • Progressive Part Method

  • Whole-Part-Whole Method


Whole learning

Whole learning

  • Performer attempts the whole movement following instructions or demonstration

  • Develop an awareness of entire movement and understand the relationship between different subroutines immediately

  • Difficult to use with complex skills, difficult for novice performers, not ideal for dangerous skills


Whole learning1

Whole Learning

  • Ideally used when:

  • Skill is discrete or ballistic

  • Subroutines lack meaning

  • Performer is motivated

  • Performer is experienced


Part learning

Part Learning

  • Performer attempts all sub routines before attempting skill as a whole

  • Complex skills are broken down into subroutines, specific aspects of technique modified, develops confidence on completion

  • It hinders timing of complete skill, reduces kinaesthetic awareness, transfer part-whole may not be effective, time consuming


Part learning1

Part Learning

  • Ideally used when:

  • The skill is complex

  • Skill involves long sequences

  • Performer has limited attention span

  • Inexperienced


Progressive part method

Progressive Part Method

  • Subroutines linked (chaining) once each individual part is learned

  • Complex skills introduced gradually, novice performers achieve quick success, development of understanding of subroutines, transfer to whole is easier

  • Time consuming, too much focus on particular subroutines


Progressive part method1

Progressive Part Method

  • Ideally used when:

  • Skill is complex, serial or dangerous

  • Time is not a constraint

  • Performer is inexperienced


Whole part whole method

Whole-Part-Whole Method

  • Performer attempts whole skill and then develops specific subroutines before completing the whole skill

  • An overall feel for movement developed initially, success is ongoing as subroutines are developed

  • Transfer form part to whole is difficult


Choose a method

Choose a method

A novice athlete learning the triple jump

Year 9 class learning how to head a football

A premier rugby team learning a set tactical move

A golfer practicing his tee shot

An experienced fast bowler practicing his action

An inexperienced cricketer learning a bowling technique

A gymnastics floor routine

A year 11 team practicing basketball lay ups

A hockey flick

An athlete working on their sprint start

Mr Kirk learning a dance routine


Types of practice

Types of Practice

  • Practice occurs after the presentation of practice

  • Coach to decide on type ensuring learning occurs, motivation is maintained and fatigue does not affect performance

  • Four Types:

  • Massed

  • Distributed

  • Variable

  • Mental


Massed ptractice

Massed Ptractice

  • Repeated practice with little or no recovery period between blocks

  • Ideally used when:

  • Skills are discrete

  • Performer is motivated

  • Performer is experienced

  • High level of fitness

  • Replication of fatigue in games is required

  • Possible problems – boredom and fatigue


Distributed practice

Distributed Practice

  • Repeated practice followed by recovery period before repetition or new task

  • Recovery period may involve other form of activity not just rest (mental practice or feedback)

  • Ideally used when:

  • The skill is new and complex

  • The performer is a novice

  • Low levels of motivation

  • Low levels of fitness

  • Short attention span

  • Recovery period can lead to – de-motivation, loss of concentration and lack of discipline


Variable practice

Variable Practice

  • Coach uses a mixture of massed and variable practice

  • Maintains interest levels and motivation

  • Helps to limit the effects of fatigue when required


Mental practice

Mental Practice

  • Cognitive rehearsal of skill without physical movement

  • Used before, during or after performance

  • Internal – sees themselves from within (kinaesthetic feel)

  • External – seeing themselves as if they were a spectator

  • Creates mental image, reduces reaction time, improve anticipation and control arousal


Mental rehearsal

Mental Rehearsal

  • Ideally used when:

  • Learning time needs to be reduced

  • Preparing for alternative situations or experiences

  • Concentrate on specific aspects or the overall skill

  • Arousal needs to be controlled

  • Performer is injured

  • Optimised by

  • Quiet Location

  • Encouraging successful outcomes

  • Regular practice

  • Use during recovery period


Methods of guidance

Methods of Guidance

  • Guidance is used to develop movement patterns and reduce errors made in performance

  • Guidance depends on the situation, nature of the task and ability of performer

  • Types: Visual, Verbal, Manual and Mechanical


Visual guidance

Visual Guidance

  • Creating a mental picture through observation of demos, videos, pictures etc

  • Can also be developed through modifying the playing area

  • To optimise visual guidance: accurate demo, focus on key points, info relevant to age and ability and clear and realistic stimuli


Visual guidance1

Visual Guidance


Verbal guidance

Verbal Guidance

  • Explaining the motor skill to be performed, understanding the requirements and feedback

  • General or specific depending on ability

  • To optimise visual guidance: clear and accurate info, limit the amount of information required, language and terminology relevant to age group, most effective with visual guidance


Visual guidance2

Visual Guidance


Manual guidance

Manual Guidance

  • Involves the performer being physically placed or supported into correct position

  • To optimise manual guidance: avoid over use of kinaesthetic awareness will not develop, combine with verbal guidance and ensure movement pattern is correct


Manual guidance1

Manual Guidance


Mechanical guidance

Mechanical Guidance

  • Similar to manual but uses some form of device or support

  • Trampolining and swimming use them


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