Intelligence chapter 11
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Intelligence (Chapter 11). Lecture Outline : History of intelligence IQ and normal distributions Measurement. Psychophysical Energy, sensitivity to physical stimuli Galton (1883) and later Cattell (1890) proposed psychophysical tests measured ability Contribution: Psychometrics.

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Intelligence (Chapter 11)

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Intelligence chapter 11

Intelligence (Chapter 11)

Lecture Outline:

History of intelligence

IQ and normal distributions

Measurement


Two views of intelligence

Psychophysical

Energy, sensitivity to physical stimuli

Galton (1883) and later Cattell (1890) proposed psychophysical tests measured ability

Contribution: Psychometrics

Mental judgement

Good sense, practical sense, initiative, reasoning

Binet & Simon (1916) diagnosed “mental defectives” in Paris

Contribution: Testing and IQ

Two Views of Intelligence


What is an intelligence quotient

What is an Intelligence Quotient?

  • IQ = (MA / CA) X 100

  • MA = Mental age, CA = Chronological age

  • 8 year old with MA of 12 has IQ of 150

  • Problem across life span, such as someone age 30 with MA of someone 45


What is intelligence

What is intelligence?

  • Goal directed adaptive behavior

  • IQ tests define a domain of skills necessary to succeed in school

What is the environment being adapted to?

What is the goal?

What is the goal?


Measuring intelligence

Measuring intelligence


Assessing intelligence

Assessing intelligence

  • Stanford Binet- Revised: Short-term memory, Verbal, Quantitative, and Figural Abstract Reasoning

  • Wechsler Scales: Verbal, Performance, and Total IQ scores (WAIS-III, WISC-III, WPPSI)

  • Individually administered in standard fashion

  • Environment was controlled so that other explanations of performance (e.g., bored, poor vision, nervous, cold) could be addressed


Validity example of sat

Validity: Example of SAT

  • Face validity: Does the test make sense?

  • Predictive validity: Does it predict Acadia grades?

  • Concurrent validity: Were they related to Grade 12 grades?

  • Construct validity: Does the SAT measure the construct it is supposed to measure?


Reliability

Reliability

  • Test-retest: Take the same test

  • Alternate forms: Two forms, such as early Stanford-Binet

  • Internal consistency: The extent to which items measure the same thing - psychophysical measures did not

  • Inter-rater reliability: Do 2 people score things the same?


Intelligence chapter 111

Intelligence (Chapter 11)

Second Lecture Outline:

Theoretical models

Cultural context

Diagnostic issues


Definitions

Definitions

  • Aptitude: Ability to learn in a specific area

  • Achievement: What is already learned in an area

  • Psychometric: Psychological measurement

  • Metacognition: Understanding and control of thought processes


Spearman s model

Spearman’s Model


Thurstone s model seven primary mental abilities

Thurstone’s model: seven primary mental abilities


Cattell s 1971 two subfactors

Fluid intelligence

Understanding abract and novel relations

Inductive reasoning and analogies

Creative relationships

Crystallized Intelligence

Accumulation of knowledge

Vocabulary and general information

Knowing lots of “stuff”

Cattell’s (1971) Two Subfactors


Lawyer courtroom surgeon a operating room b medicine

Lawyer : Courtroom :: Surgeon : (a. Operating Room b. Medicine)

  • Information Processing in complex tasks -- bright people plan tasks

  • First, you must infer a relationship between lawyer and courtroom

  • Second, you must map the first part of the analogy to the second part

  • Third, you must apply the inferred relationship to determine the final term


Lateral thinking puzzles

Lateral thinking puzzles

  • Q: Deep in the forest was found the body of a man who was wearing only swimming trunks, snorkel and facemask. The nearest lake was 8 miles away and the sea was 100 miles away. How had he died?

  • A: During a forest fire, a fire-fighting plane had scooped up some water from the lake to drop on the fire. The plane had accidentally picked up the unfortunate swimmer.

  • Q: A man pushed his car. He stopped when he reached a hotel at which point he knew he was bankrupt. Why?

  • A: He was playing Monopoly.

  • Q: A man died and went to Heaven. There were thousands of naked people there and all looked as they did at the age of 21. He looked around to see if there was anyone he recognised. He saw a couple and he knew immediately that they were Adam and Eve. How did he know?

  • A: He recognized Adam and Eve as the only people without navels. Because they were not born of women, they had never had umbilical cords and therefore they never had navels.


Cultural context of intelligence

Cultural context of intelligence

  • Kpelle tribe of Africa sorted words by function rather than hierarchically

  • Chi-Chewa tribe of Zambia have phrase nzelu that incorporates intelligence with wisdom and responsibility

  • In the United States, immigrants typically do less well on intelligence tests: cultural content of items

  • “Snow” in the Arctic


Extremes of intelligence

Mental Retardation is at low end

Dx when IQ and adaptive behavior is low

Mild 50-70

Moderate 35-55

Severe 20-40

Profound <25

Gifted at high end

1% have IQ > 135

Terman’s longitudinal study documenting “success” of men with IQ >140

School program

Mensa: IQ 130 or 98th percentile

Extremes of intelligence


Normal curve of iq scores

Normal curve of IQ scores


Heritability of intelligence

Heritability of Intelligence

  • Separated identical twin studies

  • Identical (100%) vs. Fraternal (50%) twin studies

  • Adoption studies comparing birth to adoptive parents

  • Heritability of intelligence is around 50% due to polygenic inheritance


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