Unit 7 imperative mood and genitive case
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Unit 7: Imperative Mood and Genitive Case. Notes 7.1. Learning Goals: By the end of the lesson students will be able to:. Understand the concepts of the imperative mood and possession . Recognize nouns that would take the genitive case in Latin and/or show possession in English.

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Unit 7: Imperative Mood and Genitive Case

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Unit 7 imperative mood and genitive case

Unit 7: Imperative Mood and Genitive Case

Notes 7.1


Learning goals by the end of the lesson students will be able to

Learning Goals: By the end of the lesson students will be able to:

  • Understand the concepts of the imperative mood and possession.

  • Recognize nouns that would take the genitive case in Latin and/or show possession in English.

  • Translate words, phrases, and sentences that use imperative mood and/or genitive case.


Do you remember

Do you remember…?

  • Genitive case is for nouns that show possession.

  • The genitive singular ending is provided in the vocabulary information for every noun and tells which declension a noun is.

    • -ae= 1st declension

    • -i = 2nd declension


Possession

Possession

  • Possession means owning something.

  • How do we indicate ownership in English?

  • The simplest thing we do is use a small piece of punctuation called an apostrophe (’).

    • Sarah’s house is just down the street.

      • The house belongs to Sarah.

    • The teacher could not read the student’s handwriting.

      • The handwriting belongs to the student.

    • The television crew filmed the protesters’ signs for the evening news.

      • Notice how the position of the apostrophe changes when the word is plural? If the word ends in –s, the apostrophe goes on the end of the word.


Other ways to show ownership

Other ways to show ownership:

  • There are a couple of other ways English shows ownership:

    • The preposition “of” can be used to show ownership.

      • Sam is a friend of mine.

      • The jewels of the queen are stored in a vault.

    • We also use possessive adjectives (my, mine, your(s), our(s), their(s), his, her(s), its).

    • These last examples are adjectives, not nouns, so we will NOT be dealing with them in this unit.

      • Your mom told them to clean their room.


Summary

Summary

  • When you know that a noun is in the genitive case you have 2 options to translate it:

    • ’s or s’ (depending on if it’s singular or plural)

    • The preposition of.


The endings

The endings:

1st declension:

2nddeclension masculine:

2nd declension neuter:

s

pl

s

pl

s

pl

nom.

-a

-ae

nom.

-us, -ius,-(e)r

-i

nom.

-(i)um

-a

-orum

-orum

-ae

-arum

-i

-i

gen.

gen.

gen.

dat.

-ae

-is

dat.

-is

dat.

-is

-as

-a

acc.

-am

acc.

-um

-os

acc.

-(i)um

abl.

-is

abl.

-is

abl.

-is

voc.

voc.

voc.

How can you tell the genitive from the other endings that are the same? The trick is to test the others out first. If it’s nominative the verb must end in –nt. If it’s dative it must have a verb of giving, showing, or telling. If you have eliminated the others, it must be genitive!


Examples

Examples

  • Villa Marcellaeest in Italiā.

    • The summer house of Marcella is in Italy.

    • Marcella’s summer house is in Italy.

  • Verbamagistrimemoriātenebat.

    • He was remembering the words of the teacher.

    • He was remembering the teacher’s words.

  • In tabernāfabulaspuerorumaudiebamus.

    • We were listening to the stories of the boys in the shop.

    • We were listening to the boys’ stories in the shop.


Onto a new topic

Onto a new topic…

  • Now, onto something really, really easy!

  • The imperative mood is the verbal command.

  • The command is used to order someone to do something.

  • There is no subject stated for a command. Rather, the subject is implied.

  • Examples:

    • Give me a hand with this, please!

      • To whom am I speaking?

        • You! The implied subject is you.

    • Watch me do this!

    • Listen to me!

Notice that the English verb has NOTHING with it! No subject, no ending, no helping verb. It’s only the verb itself. This makes it very easy to translate.


Imperative mood in latin

Imperative Mood in Latin

  • To make the imperative mood verb follow these rules:

  • When speaking to one person:

    2nd p. part / drop the –re / leave it alone.

  • When speaking to more than one person:

    2ndp. part / drop the –re / add –te.

  • Note: Remember to adjust the short stem vowel for 3rd and 3rd –io verbs. Change the –e to an –i in the plural. ONLY in the plural!


Examples1

Examples:

  • Dona! – Give!Donate! – Give!

  • Habe! – Have!Habete! – Have!

  • Pone! – Put!Ponite! – Put!

  • Cape! – Take!Capite! – Take!

  • Audi! – Listen!Audite! – Listen!


Examples2

Examples:

  • Salve, Gloria!

    • Hello, Gloria!

  • Salvete, discipuli!

    • Hello, students!

  • Scribe epistulamhodie!

    • Write the letter today!

  • Narrafabulampuellae, si places!

    • Tell the girl the story, please!


Unit 7 imperative mood and genitive case

Quid agis? How are you doing?


Class practice 7 1

Class Practice 7.1

  • Form and translate the imperatives for the following:

    • dono

    • monstro

    • scio

    • lego

  • Decline the following:

    • puella

    • signum


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