Alternative fuel cars
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Alternative fuel cars. I . Cars powered with petroleum. I. 1 Petrol and diesel cars I. 2 LPG and GNV cars II. Alternatives II. 1 Biofuels II. 2 Electric cars II. 3 Hybrid cars and regenerative breaking II. 4 Hydrogen and fuel cell cars II .5 Other projects.

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Alternative fuel cars

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Alternative fuel cars


I. Cars powered with petroleum

I.1 Petrol and diesel cars

I.2 LPG and GNV cars

II. Alternatives

II.1 Biofuels

II.2 Electric cars

II.3 Hybrid cars and regenerative breaking

II.4 Hydrogen and fuel cell cars

II.5 Other projects


1. Gasoline and diesel cars


  • Petrol (gasoline)

  • lower purchase price

  • larger model choice

  • cheaper maintenance

  • higher fuel price

  • products more CO2

  • shorter life of engine

  • very flammable -> danger

Diesel

  • lower price when fill up

  • motors more reliable,

    consumption 15% lower

  • 20% less CO2 released

  • purchase cost (+10%)

  • more NOx discharged


2. LPG and CNG cars

LPG (Liquified petroleum gas)

  • less polluting

  • cheaper

  • extracted from oil

    CNG (Compressed Natural Gas)

  • environmentally friendly

  • large reserves


And tommorow?

Future oil production


Alternatives


1. Biofuels


  • Biogas(anaerobic fermentation)

  • Bioethanol(ethanol fermentation)

  • Straight (or waste) vegetable oils

  • Biodiesel

  • (Transesterification: alcohol + ester → different alcohol + different ester )

  • Less emission of sulfur and CO2

  • Can be use as a pure fuel

  • No taxe

  • Risk of irresponsible farming methods

  • Biodiesel production is more expensive than petrodiesel one


2. Electric cars


Battery electric vehicle

  • Lead-acid battery

  • Nickel-cadmium battery

  • Lithium ion battery

  • zero-emissions vehicle

  • range

  • cost

  • electricity production


gasoline-powered car:

fuel tank---> engine ---> transmission ---> wheels

electric car and acceleration of a hybrid car:

set of batteries ---> electric motor ---> transmission ---> wheels

3. The gasoline-electric hybrid car


CruisingPassing


The electric motor acts as a generator and charges the battery set

Regenerative braking


Advantages

increase the mileage

less emission and petroleum consumption than a gasoline-powered car

overcome the shortcoming of an electric car

drive as well as a usual car

Examples

Toyota Prius


Hydrogen & fuel cell


  • Advantages

  • high efficiency

  • emission-free

  • no moving parts, do not involve combustion

    • -> reliable

  • Disadvantages

  • cost

  • manufacture, vehicule integration

  • hydrogen production


5. Other projects...

Compressed-air cars

Solar cars


Conclusion

A faire !!!

A lot of alternatives exist…they all have advantages, disadvantages and specific needs… so there is still work (chemin a faire) to do with the conception but a………..


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