Chapter 8 confederation to constitution
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Chapter 8 Confederation to Constitution. Moving West. This was America in 1787 With all the new land, people wanted to move West

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Chapter 8 Confederation to Constitution

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Chapter 8Confederation to Constitution


Moving West

  • This was America in 1787

    • With all the new land, people wanted to move West

    • When we won the Revolutionary war, we gained the lands in orange

    • Soon people began to move there.


Moving West

  • Daniel Boone & many others cut a path through the Appalachian Mountains to get to Kentucky

    • They called this path Wilderness Road

    • The road was not easy to travel – It was narrow for carts & wagons

    • Some western lands were inhabited by Native Americans but this did not stop settlers from going West

  • By the early 1790s, about 100,000 Americans lived west of the Appalachian Mountains.


New State Governments

  • Once the states had independence, they set out to create their own state governments.

    • The states did not want to destroy the political systems they had in the colonies.

  • All states had formed a republican form of government.

    • In arepublic, the PEOPLE choose representatives to govern them


The Articles of Confederation

  • While the states set up their government, Americans discussed having a national government.

    • In 1776, the Continental Congress began to develop a plan for national government. WHY?

  • The final plan they arrived at was called the Articles of Confederation.

    • This was the FIRST national Constitution in the Americas.


The Articles of Confederation

Pictured here is the FIRST Constitution in America…

the 1st official government


The Articles of Confederation

  • The Articles gave the

    • national government only a few powers

    • state governments important powers


The Articles of Confederation

  • The STATES have LOTS of power

  • The National Government has LITTLE power


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What to do with the land?

  • Congress passed laws on how to divide & govern these lands. (Northwest Territory)

  • Land Ordinance of 1785 – surveyors would take out six-square-mile plots, called territories

    • These lands later became known as the Northwest Territory


The Land Ordinance of 1785


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What to do with the land?

  • Northwest Ordinance– described how the Northwest territories would be governed.(how states could be formed)

    • Formed states such as Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois & Wisconsin

  • If there were 60,000 free malesin a territory, they could apply for statehood

  • Slavery was outlawed

  • Freedom of religion & trial by jury were guaranteed


Weaknesses of the Articles

  • NATIONAL GOVERNMENT WAS TOO WEAK!

    • National government has no powers

    • Could not levy taxes to pay soldiers from Revolutionary War

    • The country was in debt!

    • People in the nation began to face hard times


Shay’s Rebellion

  • People in Massachusetts had little money, like many others in the states

    • Farmers from Massachusetts demanded money from the state Legislature

    • The state refused

    • The farmers, led by Daniel Shays, rebelled

    • The farmers marched on a federal building ready to attack.


Shay’s Rebellion

  • Pictured here is Shays & his men rebelling.

  • America’s leaders realized that the farmers’ uprising was trouble for the government.

    • Feared rebellion may spread

  • Shay’s Rebellion proved the Articles of Confederation WOULD NOT WORK!


Writing a Constitution

  • Leaders realized the Articles of Confederation would need to be changed.

  • 55 delegates were called to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

  • The 1st plan was to re-write the Articles.

  • The result was writing a whole new Constitution.

  • Some delegates included James Madison, George Washington & Ben Franklin.

    • Thomas Jefferson & Patrick Henry were not there.


The Constitutional Convention


Writing a Constitution - Plans

  • The work for a new plan of a National government began

  • Virginia Plan –

    Government would have 3 branches: executive, legislative & judiciary

    2 houses – both have representatives based on population – these reps would make decisions in government.

  • Small states did NOT like!

  • Large states LIKED!


Three Branches of Government

Legislative: includes Congress

Executive: includes President & Vice President

Judicial: includes Courts


New Jersey Plan

  • Small states had a response to the Virginia Plan – they proposed an alternative plan.

  • New Jersey Plan –

    1 house – each state would have only 1 representative (1 vote)

    The Great Compromise –

    3 branches of government: executive, legislative, judicial

    2 houses –

    • House of Representatives – representatives based on population

    • Senate – 2 representatives for each state


The Great Compromise

3 Branches of Government

2 Houses - Senate & House of Representatives

Senate 2 representatives per state no matter the population

House of Representatives number of representatives based on population

Good for big states

Good for small states


Three-Fifths Compromise

  • Three-Fifths Compromise - Three-Fifths (3/5) of the slave population would be counted as part of the population when determining representatives for the House.

  • 3 out of every 5 slaves would count

  • For example:

  • On Mr. Smith’s Plantation, 6 slaves would count towards the population count in Texas


Debate over Constitution

  • The Constitution caused disagreements between Americans. The writers suspected people might be afraid of the power of the National government.

  • Constitution was based on federalism

  • Federalism – system of government in which power is shared between the national government and the states.


Federalism


Supporters of Constitution

  • People who supported the Constitution were called Federalists

  • People who opposed (didn’t support) the Constitution were called Anti-federalists

    • Thought the national government had too much power. (remember the King of England?)


The Federalist Papers

  • Federalists wrote essays to answer the Anti-federalists’ attacks on the Constitution.

  • Federalists published The Federalistpapers

    • Written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay & James Madison


The Federalist Papers

  • Alexander Hamilton, author of The Federalist papers


Federalists vs. Antifederalists

Federalists

Stronger national government

One person to head the executive branch (Pres.)

Anti-Federalists

Stronger state governments

Feared a strong executive (Pres.)

Both

Different branches of government

Supported a bill of rights


The Bill of Rights

  • The Constitution had to be amended- changed

  • People wanted their rights spelled out for them in the Constitution

    Bill of Rights – the first 10 amendments (changes) to the Constitution

  • 10 Amendments were added to the Constitution – WHY? To protect our rights


Visual Summary

1781Articles of Confederation go into effect.

1777Continental Congress passes the Articles of Confederation.

1777–1781States debate ratification of the Articles of Confederation.

1786Annapolis Convention is held.

1786–1787

Shay’s Rebellion occurs.

1788U.S. Constitution is ratified.

1787Constitutional Convention is held in Philadelphia.

1789 Government created by the new Constitution takes power.

1791Bill of Rights is added to the Constitution.

The Constitution has lasted for over 200 years!


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