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Sound. How is sound formed? How does sound travel? Speed of Sound? Echo Sound Intensity, Frequency, and pitch The Doppler Effect. How is sound formed?. Sound - Form of energy that travels in waves and can be perceived by the ear Formed through vibrations

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Sound

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Sound

How is sound formed?

How does sound travel?

Speed of Sound?

Echo

Sound Intensity, Frequency, and pitch

The Doppler Effect


How is sound formed?

  • Sound - Form of energy that travels in waves and can be perceived by the ear

  • Formed through vibrations

    • back and forth movements of particles

  • All sounds formed by vibration

    • Ex. Guitar Strings plucked and vibrated

    • Vocal Cords vibrating and causing voice


How does sound travel?

  • Sound travels in Longitudinal Waves or compression waves

    • Particles in air (or other mediums) vibrate (move back and forth) in the direction of wave motion

  • Sound does not travel in a vacuum

    • There are no particles in a vacuum

    • SOUND NEEDS A MEDIUM TO TRAVEL THROUGH


Do you hear what I hear?

  • As sound vibrates particles through the air, the sound wave is sent from source of sound to your ear

  • Vibrations travel to ear drum causing it to vibrate

  • Vibrations in eardrum travel to middle ear where 3 bones (malleus, incus, and stapes) vibrate

  • Send vibrations to Cochlea in inner ear where nerves send messages to the brain to analyze sounds.


Speed of Sound

  • Sound travels at 340 meters/second

  • Sound travels much slower than light

    • Sound: 340 meters/second

      • Or (.340 km/second)

    • Light: 299, 792, 458 meters/second

      • (or 300,000 km/second)

  • Lightning and thunder


Sonic Boom (Breaking the Sound Barrier)

  • Supersonic speed

    • Faster than the speed of sound

  • Breaking the sound barrier

    • At supersonic speeds objects push back air particles ( in this case vibrating particles due to sound)

  • See some jets before you hear them

    • Break glass


  • Echo

    • Echo – Sound reflected from a barrier

    • Sound reflection

      • Angles, non-porous walls, marble

      • Bounces back to source

    • Sound absorption

      • Sound does not echo

      • Carpet, cloth panels


    Echolocation and SONAR

    • Bats can determine location using high frequency sounds that bounce off objects

    • SONAR

      • Sound Navigation And Ranging

      • Used to find geography of ocean floor

      • Find schools of fish


    Sound Intensity

    • Intensity – the amount of energy a sound has

      • Large amplitude = Louder Sound

      • Sound intensity measured in Decibels (dB)

      • Break a glass with your voice alone


    Sound Frequency and Pitch

    • Pitch - How high or low a sound is

      • Related to frequency

    • High frequency sound = High pitch

    • Low Frequency sound = Low Pitch

    • Humans

      • 20 Hz and 20,000 Hz


    Ultrasonic Sound

    • Sound beyond our normal hearing range

      • Whales

      • Bats

      • Dogs


    The Doppler Effect

    • Doppler Effect – The apparent change in the frequency of waves

    • The frequency of sound seems to change when the source of sound moves toward or away from you


    • http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=doppler+effect+police+siren&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=QxJ-R3W2VtIfMM&tbnid=WUQNWrIinMt79M:&ved=0CAQQjB0&url=http%3A%2F%2Fasset.emsofl.com%2FONLINE%2520CLASS%2FPhysLifeCD%2F_CDDAT%2FPhySci8%2Funit09%2Fphschool.com%2FSE_O_SC2_ACT.html&ei=C8U9Ud_JJ42xqwGX3YCYCQ&bvm=bv.43287494,d.aWM&psig=AFQjCNEADVNJYCTTTAaFgCtRo32uc8DDfw&ust=1363089032704957


    The Doppler Effect

    • Occurs when there is motion between source of sound and observer

    • As sound approaches waves seem close together and have high frequency

    • As sound passes waves seem farther apart and have lower frequency


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