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Local Area Network Management,Design and Security. Hårdvara i LAN Kap.3 i kursboken Jag har kastat in delar i kapitlet. Servrar. Filhantering (fig 3.2) Diskserver Filserver Applikationsservrar Klient/server-teknik Databas Ekonomisystem Web/FTP/m.fl. ”Terminal”-teknik

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local area network management design and security
Local Area NetworkManagement,Design and Security
  • Hårdvara i LAN
    • Kap.3 i kursboken
  • Jag har kastat in delar i kapitlet.
servrar
Servrar

Filhantering (fig 3.2)

  • Diskserver
  • Filserver
  • Applikationsservrar
    • Klient/server-teknik
      • Databas
      • Ekonomisystem
      • Web/FTP/m.fl.
    • ”Terminal”-teknik
      • MS Terminal server/Citrix
      • m.fl.
fig 3 2 s 114
Fig. 3.2 s. 114

The disk server lets usersshare the disk.

Programs and data can be shared on the file server

User 1

User 2

User 3

U. 1

User 2

Word proc..

Spreadsheets

Other progs

User 9

User area

Data area

h gprestanda anslutning sb
Högprestanda-anslutning SB
  • SCSI (SCUZZY).
  • Serial SCSI IEEE1394 (FireWire, i.Link)
  • IP storage/iSCSI
  • Fibre Channel
  • Serial ATA
fig 3 4 scsi terminering
Fig. 3.4 SCSI-terminering

Internal devices

Internaldevices

Terminator

Terminator

CD-rom

CD-rom

Externaldevices

Disk

Disk

Terminator

Scanner

Printer

Terminator

scsi scuzzy small computer system interface
SCSI (scuzzy)Small Computer System Interface
  • SCSI-1 5MHz 8bitar 40Mbps 1 enhet.
  • SCSI-2 standard SCSI (Narrow).
    • Narrow 5MHz 8bitar 40Mbps 7 enheter
    • Fast 10MHz 8bitar 80Mbps 7 enheter.
    • Wide 5MHz 16bitar 80Mbps 15 enheter.
    • Fast Wide 10MHz 16bitar 160Mbps 15 enh.
scsi scuzzy sb
SCSI (scuzzy) SB
  • SCSI-3.
    • Ultra SCSI 20MHz 8 bitar 160Mbps (20) 7/3…
    • Wide Ultra SCSI 20 16 320Mbps (40) 15
    • Ultra2 SCSI 40 8 320Mbps (40MByte/s) 7
    • Wide Ultra2 SCSI 40 16 640 (80MByte/s) 15
    • Ultra3 SCSI 80 8 640Mbps 7 (80MByte/s) 7
    • Wide Ultra3(Ultra160) 80 16 1280Mbps (160MB/s) 15
    • Ultra320 160 16 2560Mbps (320MByte/s) 15
scsi scuzzy sb1
SCSI (scuzzy) SB
  • Singel ended (SE) 1 tråd/signal (1,5-3m)
  • Differential 2 trådar /signal (motsatt spänning) (25m)
  • Low-voltage differential (LVD) lägre spänning (12m)
  • SCA Single Connector Attachment
scsi scuzzy
SCSI (scuzzy)
  • Kontakter Table 3.3 s.119
    • + VHDCI
  • SCSI ID
    • Kontroller ID# 7 (Högst prioritet)
    • Bootdisk ID# 0
  • Terminering Fig. 3.4 s.120
  • Table 3.4 s.121 obs id# 7 & Diff./LVD
serial scsi ieee1394 firewire i link sb
Serial SCSI IEEE1394 (FireWire, i.Link) SB
  • IEEE1394 FireWire100-400 Mbps 12,5-50 MBps
  • IEEE1394B FireWire800/FireWire1600800-1600 Mbps 100-200 MBpsSkärmad koppar 4,5m,CAT-5 & Fiber 100m
  • [45W]
ip storage iscsi sb
IP storage/iSCSI SB
  • IP Storageis a technology that encompasses block storage transfer over an IP network.
  • iSCSI is a protocol standard for encapsulating SCSI in TCP/IP for transfer over an IP network
  • TCP Offload TechnologyTCP Offload Engine (TOE)
fibre channel sb
Fibre Channel SB
  • Seriellt kommunikationsprotokoll används:
    • Punkt till punkt
    • Ringnät (FC-AL) max 126 enheterFibre Channel Arbitrated Loop
    • Växlat nät (FC fabric) Fibre Channel Fabric 224 adresser (~16 miljoner enheter)

Olika fabrikat sällan helt kompatibla

fibre channel sb1
Fibre Channel SB
  • Koppar-kabel (500m)- eller Fiber-kabel (~10 km)
  • Dubblerad kabel för säkerhetens skull.
  • Felrättande kod på byte och paketnivå
  • Hastigheter: 100MByte/s -> 400MByte/sPå gång (1,6 GByte/s = 12,8 Gbit/s)
  • Enheter kan anslutas under drift (Hot-plug)
  • LAN Free backup
fibre channel class of service sb
Fibre Channel Class Of ServiceSB
  • FC Class-1: Dedicated connection, full bandwidth, and confirmed delivery
  • FC Class-2: Confirmed delivery
  • FC Class-3: "Data Gram" delivery NOT confirmed
  • FC Class-4: Virtual Connection, fractional bandwidth, confirmed delivery
serial ata sb
Serial ATA SB
  • 150 MByte/sec (SATA II 300MByte/s)

Serial ATA is a "serial" architecture as opposed to today\'s "parallel" ATA internal disc drive bus.Serial ATA wraps many bits of data into a packet and then at a higher speed (up to 50% higher) than parallel, transfers the packet of data down the wire to or from the host.(Point-to-point)

With ”parallel” ATA Cyclic Redundancy Checking (CRC) is performed on the data being transmitted back and forth but not on the commands.

Serial ATA integrates CRC on the command and data packet level for enhanced bus reliability. Cyclic redundancy code detects all single and double-bit errors and ensures detection of 99.998% of all possible errors.

A Serial ATA drive can transfer data at 150MB/sec on the bus to the host system with extremely reliable accuracy and the Serial ATA interface will continue to allow scalability for a very long time.

http://www.serialata.org/

h rdvara i en server
Hårdvara i en server
  • Datalagring
  • Bussar & In/Ut-enheter (I/O)
  • Primär-minne
  • Moderkort/Chipset
  • CPU/Cache
  • Låda med power-supply och UPS
  • Backupenheter
  • Network Interface Card (NIC)
datalagring
Datalagring
  • Floppydisk (FDD) (Diskett)
  • Diverse skivor (ZIP-Drive. MMO m.fl)
  • CD/DVD CD/RW
  • CD-växlareStora system kostar ofta 500-1000:-/cd-plats.Flera läsare/brännare kan ofta installeras i växlaren och dessa kan då användas parallellt.
  • Hårddiskar (HDD)
  • ”Tapestorage”
h rddiskar hdd sb
Hårddiskar (HDD) SB
  • IDE 2 st enheterEIDE 2+2 st enheter (vanligast)
  • SATA 1st enhet/anslutning
  • SCSI 1 & 2 7st enheterSCSI 2 & 3 (Wide) 15st enheter------------------------------------------------
  • JBOD Just a Bunch Of Disks
  • RAID
  • NAS/SAN
bussar
Bussar
  • ISA
  • EISA
  • MCA
  • Local bus
  • VESA local bus
  • PCI local bus
  • AGP(1,2,4,8)

(Interna, på moderkortet)

in ut enheter i o sb
In/Ut-enheter (I/O) SB
  • Serie-portar
  • Parallell-portar
  • USB (Universal Serial Bus)
  • IEEE1394/1394B (FireWire, i.Link)
  • IDE/EIDE (Integrated drive electronics)
  • SATA (Serial ATA)
  • SCSI (Scuzzy) (Small computer system interface)
  • SSA (Serial storage architecture)
  • Fibre Channel
  • IP-storage/iSCSI
prim r minne
Primär-minne
  • MinneGrundrek. 512-1024 Mbyte i server
  • Läs om minnen s.128-132
  • SDRAM
  • DDR-SDRAM (Dubbel fart)
  • Direct Rambus DRAM (DRDRAM)
moderkort chipset
Moderkort/Chipset
  • AT/ Baby AT (! För gammalt)
  • ATX (Vanligaste kortet)
  • LPX (PCI-kort på eget ”kort”)
  • NLX (PII/PIII-processor, USB ingår)
  • WTX (Lågpris-kort)
  • EATX (Ej standard max 13” x 12” ”Rackmonteringskortet” 1U)
  • Chipset ! (s.138-139)
  • Flerprocessorkort

Nytt

cpu cache sb
CPU/Cache SB
  • CPU2 st endast 50% ökning av prestanda, men en hängd CPU tillåter ändå access till datorn om den andra svarar.
  • Cache L1, L2 (L3 i minnet)
l da med power supply
Låda med power supply
  • Krav på låda för server:
    • Bra med platser för enheter
    • Luftig (Bra med utrymme och bra fläktar)
    • Power supply ska orka driva allt.
  • Figure 3.13 & Table 3.8 s.140 + Rackmonterat 19”-rack
  • Redundant power supplyDubblerad strömförsörjning inne i dator eller annan utrustning, var och en klarar av att driva hela utrustningen själv.
slide26
UPS

UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)

  • Batteri-drift
  • Störskydd
  • Signalkabel fig.6.15 s.244
  • Driftstid batterier?
  • Skydd för NIC?
  • Övervakningsbar? (SNMP)
fig 6 15 s 244
Fig 6.15 s.244

COM1:

UPS

Power net

backup enheter s 141 143
Backup-enheter S.141-143
  • Disketter
  • Andra skivor
    • Zipdrive/LS-120 mfl
    • CD/RW
    • DVD/RW
  • Minnesmoduler (extremt snabbt )
  • Flyttbara hård-diskar
  • Backup-station
backup station sb
Backup-stationSB
  • Automatisk Backup:
    • Autochanger, Autoloader, Library
  • Backup-tape:
    • QIC -> 6Mbyte/minut 1-5Gbyte
    • 4mmDAT 2.4 Mbyte/sec 40GB compressed
    • D8 (8mm) 14GB ?
    • DLT III- IV 1,5-6Mbyte/sec 20-80GB compressed
    • Super DLT 12Mbyte/sec 100- GB compressed (Quantum.)
    • AITAdvanced Intelligent Tape (SONY)
    • Ultrium (Ultrium Linear Tape Open (LTO))IBM, HP and Seagate’s nya bandtyp Generation 1 tape max 100Gbyte
ait 1 sb
AIT-1 SB
  • AIT-1 format, introduced in 1996,capacity 25GB (65GB compressed*)An extended length tape for the AIT-1 drive was introduced to offer additional capacity of 35GB (91GB compressed*).3 (7,8)Mbyte/s data transfer rate (compressed*).

*2,6:1 komprimering

ait 2 3 sb
AIT-2 & 3 SB
  • AIT-2capacity 50GB (130GB) data transfer rate 6 (15,6)MB/s
  • AIT-3capacity 100GB (260GB)data transfer rate 12 (31,2) MB/s.

(compressed)

mer ait sb
Mer AIT SB
  • SAIT-1capacity 500GB and a data transfer rate of up to 30MB/s.
  • AIT-4 is now in development planning for 2004. In keeping with the original plan of doubling capacity and transfer rate, this format would offer 200 (520)GB of native capacity, with a data transfer rate of 24 (62,4)MB/s
ultrium sb
Ultrium SB
  • Ultrium provides for 4 different cartridge capacities (20, 60, 100, and 200 GB--assumes 2:1 compression) and 8-channel head geometries in the first generation that provides for data transfer rates of 20-40 MB/ second (2:1 compression). The multiple-capacity cartridges allow the technology to be matched to capacity, performance, and cost requirements of the application.

Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4

Capacity(2:1 comp)

200 GB 400 GB 800 GB 1.6 TB

Transfer Rate MB/sec 2:1 comp) 20-40 40-80 80-160 160-320

  • Instant Access to Usage Data—via LTO CM (cartridge memory), an embedded electronics and interface module that can store and retrieve a cartridge\'s historical usage and other information.
network interface card nic
Network Interface Card (NIC)
  • Använd speciella NIC i server eftersom dessa har stöd för snabbare nätaccess, oftast i form av större buffrar.
  • Stöd för automatisk växling (hot-spare) till reserv NIC kan också finnas.
  • Läs mer om NIC & kablar i boken s.143-149 & 151-158
klientdator workstation
Klientdator (Workstation)
  • Klientdator – PC med NIC !
  • Tunna klienter (Disk-lösa)
    • BootPROM på NIC – OS på server
    • PXE på NIC – OS på server
  • MS Terminalservices
skrivare sb
Skrivare SB
  • Skrivare(Printer)Till dom flesta laserskrivare finns nätverkskort som tillbehör.Andra typer av skrivare kan via speciell extern nätverks-utrustning (print-server) ansluta standard parallell-port.
vrigt sb
Övrigt SB
  • Hot-swapEnheten kan bytas under drift
  • Hot-spareEnheten är monterad i förväg, normalt sker växling till ny enhet automatiskt
  • Hot-plugEnhet kan kopplas in under drift jmf. USB, Ethernet hub/switch, SAN mfl.
ad