Local area network management design and security
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Local Area Network Management,Design and Security. Hårdvara i LAN Kap.3 i kursboken Jag har kastat in delar i kapitlet. Servrar. Filhantering (fig 3.2) Diskserver Filserver Applikationsservrar Klient/server-teknik Databas Ekonomisystem Web/FTP/m.fl. ”Terminal”-teknik

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Local Area Network Management,Design and Security

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Local area network management design and security

Local Area NetworkManagement,Design and Security

  • Hårdvara i LAN

    • Kap.3 i kursboken

  • Jag har kastat in delar i kapitlet.


Servrar

Servrar

Filhantering (fig 3.2)

  • Diskserver

  • Filserver

  • Applikationsservrar

    • Klient/server-teknik

      • Databas

      • Ekonomisystem

      • Web/FTP/m.fl.

    • ”Terminal”-teknik

      • MS Terminal server/Citrix

      • m.fl.


Fig 3 2 s 114

Fig. 3.2 s. 114

The disk server lets usersshare the disk.

Programs and data can be shared on the file server

User 1

User 2

User 3

U. 1

User 2

Word proc..

Spreadsheets

Other progs

User 9

User area

Data area


H gprestanda anslutning sb

Högprestanda-anslutning SB

  • SCSI (SCUZZY).

  • Serial SCSI IEEE1394 (FireWire, i.Link)

  • IP storage/iSCSI

  • Fibre Channel

  • Serial ATA


Fig 3 4 scsi terminering

Fig. 3.4 SCSI-terminering

Internal devices

Internaldevices

Terminator

Terminator

CD-rom

CD-rom

Externaldevices

Disk

Disk

Terminator

Scanner

Printer

Terminator


Scsi scuzzy small computer system interface

SCSI (scuzzy)Small Computer System Interface

  • SCSI-1 5MHz 8bitar 40Mbps 1 enhet.

  • SCSI-2 standard SCSI (Narrow).

    • Narrow 5MHz 8bitar 40Mbps 7 enheter

    • Fast 10MHz 8bitar 80Mbps 7 enheter.

    • Wide 5MHz 16bitar 80Mbps 15 enheter.

    • Fast Wide 10MHz 16bitar 160Mbps 15 enh.


Scsi scuzzy sb

SCSI (scuzzy) SB

  • SCSI-3.

    • Ultra SCSI 20MHz 8 bitar 160Mbps (20) 7/3…

    • Wide Ultra SCSI 20 16 320Mbps (40) 15

    • Ultra2 SCSI 40 8 320Mbps (40MByte/s) 7

    • Wide Ultra2 SCSI 40 16 640 (80MByte/s) 15

    • Ultra3 SCSI 80 8 640Mbps 7 (80MByte/s) 7

    • Wide Ultra3(Ultra160) 80 16 1280Mbps (160MB/s) 15

    • Ultra320160 16 2560Mbps (320MByte/s) 15


Scsi scuzzy sb1

SCSI (scuzzy) SB

  • Singel ended (SE) 1 tråd/signal (1,5-3m)

  • Differential 2 trådar/signal (motsatt spänning) (25m)

  • Low-voltage differential (LVD)lägre spänning (12m)

  • SCA Single Connector Attachment


Scsi scuzzy

SCSI (scuzzy)

  • Kontakter Table 3.3 s.119

    • + VHDCI

  • SCSI ID

    • Kontroller ID# 7 (Högst prioritet)

    • Bootdisk ID# 0

  • Terminering Fig. 3.4 s.120

  • Table 3.4 s.121 obs id# 7 & Diff./LVD


Serial scsi ieee1394 firewire i link sb

Serial SCSI IEEE1394 (FireWire, i.Link) SB

  • IEEE1394 FireWire100-400 Mbps12,5-50 MBps

  • IEEE1394B FireWire800/FireWire1600800-1600 Mbps100-200 MBpsSkärmad koppar 4,5m,CAT-5 & Fiber 100m

  • [45W]


Ip storage iscsi sb

IP storage/iSCSI SB

  • IP Storageis a technology that encompasses block storage transfer over an IP network.

  • iSCSI is a protocol standard for encapsulating SCSI in TCP/IP for transfer over an IP network

  • TCP Offload TechnologyTCP Offload Engine (TOE)


Fibre channel sb

Fibre Channel SB

  • Seriellt kommunikationsprotokoll används:

    • Punkt till punkt

    • Ringnät (FC-AL) max 126 enheterFibre Channel Arbitrated Loop

    • Växlat nät (FC fabric) Fibre Channel Fabric 224 adresser (~16 miljoner enheter)

      Olika fabrikat sällan helt kompatibla


Fibre channel sb1

Fibre Channel SB

  • Koppar-kabel (500m)- eller Fiber-kabel (~10 km)

  • Dubblerad kabel för säkerhetens skull.

  • Felrättande kod på byte och paketnivå

  • Hastigheter: 100MByte/s -> 400MByte/sPå gång (1,6 GByte/s = 12,8 Gbit/s)

  • Enheter kan anslutas under drift (Hot-plug)

  • LAN Free backup


Fibre channel class of service sb

Fibre Channel Class Of ServiceSB

  • FC Class-1: Dedicated connection, full bandwidth, and confirmed delivery

  • FC Class-2: Confirmed delivery

  • FC Class-3: "Data Gram" delivery NOT confirmed

  • FC Class-4: Virtual Connection, fractional bandwidth, confirmed delivery


Serial ata sb

Serial ATA SB

  • 150 MByte/sec (SATA II 300MByte/s)

Serial ATA is a "serial" architecture as opposed to today's "parallel" ATA internal disc drive bus.Serial ATA wraps many bits of data into a packet and then at a higher speed (up to 50% higher) than parallel, transfers the packet of data down the wire to or from the host.(Point-to-point)

With ”parallel” ATA Cyclic Redundancy Checking (CRC) is performed on the data being transmitted back and forth but not on the commands.

Serial ATA integrates CRC on the command and data packet level for enhanced bus reliability. Cyclic redundancy code detects all single and double-bit errors and ensures detection of 99.998% of all possible errors.

A Serial ATA drive can transfer data at 150MB/sec on the bus to the host system with extremely reliable accuracy and the Serial ATA interface will continue to allow scalability for a very long time.

http://www.serialata.org/


H rdvara i en server

Hårdvara i en server

  • Datalagring

  • Bussar & In/Ut-enheter (I/O)

  • Primär-minne

  • Moderkort/Chipset

  • CPU/Cache

  • Låda med power-supply och UPS

  • Backupenheter

  • Network Interface Card (NIC)


Datalagring

Datalagring

  • Floppydisk (FDD) (Diskett)

  • Diverse skivor (ZIP-Drive. MMO m.fl)

  • CD/DVD CD/RW

  • CD-växlareStora system kostar ofta 500-1000:-/cd-plats.Flera läsare/brännare kan ofta installeras i växlaren och dessa kan då användas parallellt.

  • Hårddiskar (HDD)

  • ”Tapestorage”


H rddiskar hdd sb

Hårddiskar (HDD) SB

  • IDE 2 st enheterEIDE 2+2 st enheter (vanligast)

  • SATA1st enhet/anslutning

  • SCSI 1 & 2 7st enheterSCSI 2 & 3 (Wide)15st enheter------------------------------------------------

  • JBOD Just a Bunch Of Disks

  • RAID

  • NAS/SAN


Bussar

Bussar

  • ISA

  • EISA

  • MCA

  • Local bus

  • VESA local bus

  • PCI local bus

  • AGP(1,2,4,8)

    (Interna, på moderkortet)


Bild med j mf relse av bus prestanda

Bild med jämförelse av ”bus”-prestanda

  • Table 3.5 s.128

    + AGPx8


In ut enheter i o sb

In/Ut-enheter (I/O) SB

  • Serie-portar

  • Parallell-portar

  • USB(Universal Serial Bus)

  • IEEE1394/1394B (FireWire, i.Link)

  • IDE/EIDE(Integrated drive electronics)

  • SATA(Serial ATA)

  • SCSI (Scuzzy) (Small computer system interface)

  • SSA(Serial storage architecture)

  • Fibre Channel

  • IP-storage/iSCSI


Prim r minne

Primär-minne

  • MinneGrundrek. 512-1024 Mbyte i server

  • Läs om minnen s.128-132

  • SDRAM

  • DDR-SDRAM (Dubbel fart)

  • Direct Rambus DRAM (DRDRAM)


Moderkort chipset

Moderkort/Chipset

  • AT/ Baby AT (! För gammalt)

  • ATX (Vanligaste kortet)

  • LPX (PCI-kort på eget ”kort”)

  • NLX (PII/PIII-processor, USB ingår)

  • WTX (Lågpris-kort)

  • EATX (Ej standard max 13” x 12” ”Rackmonteringskortet” 1U)

  • Chipset !(s.138-139)

  • Flerprocessorkort

Nytt


Cpu cache sb

CPU/Cache SB

  • CPU2 st endast 50% ökning av prestanda, men en hängd CPU tillåter ändå access till datorn om den andra svarar.

  • Cache L1, L2 (L3 i minnet)


L da med power supply

Låda med power supply

  • Krav på låda för server:

    • Bra med platser för enheter

    • Luftig (Bra med utrymme och bra fläktar)

    • Power supply ska orka driva allt.

  • Figure 3.13 & Table 3.8 s.140 + Rackmonterat 19”-rack

  • Redundant power supplyDubblerad strömförsörjning inne i dator eller annan utrustning, var och en klarar av att driva hela utrustningen själv.


Local area network management design and security

UPS

UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)

  • Batteri-drift

  • Störskydd

  • Signalkabel fig.6.15 s.244

  • Driftstid batterier?

  • Skydd för NIC?

  • Övervakningsbar? (SNMP)


Fig 6 15 s 244

Fig 6.15 s.244

COM1:

UPS

Power net


Backup enheter s 141 143

Backup-enheter S.141-143

  • Disketter

  • Andra skivor

    • Zipdrive/LS-120 mfl

    • CD/RW

    • DVD/RW

  • Minnesmoduler (extremt snabbt )

  • Flyttbara hård-diskar

  • Backup-station


Backup station sb

Backup-stationSB

  • Automatisk Backup:

    • Autochanger, Autoloader, Library

  • Backup-tape:

    • QIC -> 6Mbyte/minut 1-5Gbyte

    • 4mmDAT 2.4 Mbyte/sec 40GB compressed

    • D8 (8mm) 14GB ?

    • DLT III- IV 1,5-6Mbyte/sec 20-80GB compressed

    • Super DLT 12Mbyte/sec 100- GB compressed (Quantum.)

    • AITAdvanced Intelligent Tape (SONY)

    • Ultrium (Ultrium Linear Tape Open (LTO))IBM, HP and Seagate’s nya bandtyp Generation 1 tape max 100Gbyte


Ait 1 sb

AIT-1 SB

  • AIT-1 format, introduced in 1996,capacity 25GB (65GB compressed*)An extended length tape for the AIT-1 drive was introduced to offer additional capacity of 35GB (91GB compressed*).3 (7,8)Mbyte/s data transfer rate (compressed*).

    *2,6:1 komprimering


Ait 2 3 sb

AIT-2 & 3 SB

  • AIT-2capacity 50GB (130GB) data transfer rate 6 (15,6)MB/s

  • AIT-3capacity 100GB (260GB)data transfer rate 12 (31,2) MB/s.

    (compressed)


Mer ait sb

Mer AIT SB

  • SAIT-1capacity 500GB and a data transfer rate of up to 30MB/s.

  • AIT-4 is now in development planning for 2004. In keeping with the original plan of doubling capacity and transfer rate, this format would offer 200 (520)GB of native capacity, with a data transfer rate of 24 (62,4)MB/s


Ultrium sb

Ultrium SB

  • Ultrium provides for 4 different cartridge capacities (20, 60, 100, and 200 GB--assumes 2:1 compression) and 8-channel head geometries in the first generation that provides for data transfer rates of 20-40 MB/ second (2:1 compression). The multiple-capacity cartridges allow the technology to be matched to capacity, performance, and cost requirements of the application.

    Generation 1Generation 2Generation 3Generation 4

    Capacity(2:1 comp)

    200 GB400 GB800 GB1.6 TB

    Transfer Rate MB/sec 2:1 comp) 20-4040-8080-160160-320

  • Instant Access to Usage Data—via LTO CM (cartridge memory), an embedded electronics and interface module that can store and retrieve a cartridge's historical usage and other information.


Network interface card nic

Network Interface Card (NIC)

  • Använd speciella NIC i server eftersom dessa har stöd för snabbare nätaccess, oftast i form av större buffrar.

  • Stöd för automatisk växling (hot-spare) till reserv NIC kan också finnas.

  • Läs mer om NIC & kablar i boken s.143-149 & 151-158


Klientdator workstation

Klientdator (Workstation)

  • Klientdator – PC med NIC !

  • Tunna klienter (Disk-lösa)

    • BootPROM på NIC – OS på server

    • PXE på NIC – OS på server

  • MS Terminalservices


Skrivare sb

Skrivare SB

  • Skrivare(Printer)Till dom flesta laserskrivare finns nätverkskort som tillbehör.Andra typer av skrivare kan via speciell extern nätverks-utrustning (print-server) ansluta standard parallell-port.


Vrigt sb

Övrigt SB

  • Hot-swapEnheten kan bytas under drift

  • Hot-spareEnheten är monterad i förväg, normalt sker växling till ny enhet automatiskt

  • Hot-plugEnhet kan kopplas in under drift jmf. USB, Ethernet hub/switch, SAN mfl.


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