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Project Implementation: Loan administration

We would like to acknowledge the contribution of the Programme Management Department in the preparation of this presentation that will introduce some concepts and guiding principles for Loan administration

For more information on the topic please refer to the supervision training material of February 2012

Table of Contents

  • Loan Administration Principles & Framework

  • Letter to the Borrower/ Disbursement Handbook

  • Disbursement Procedures

  • Withdrawal Applications

  • Foreign Exchange Translation


Basic Principles of Loan Administration

  • Only Eligible expenditure:proceeds of financing shall be used only for purposes for which financing provided

  • Due attention & consideration to economy, efficiency & social equity

  • Expenditure is eligible as & when incurred: Advance payments made by project other than contractual advances are ineligible

  • First withdrawal: First withdrawal from loan/ grant account is made normally only after financing is effective & disbursement conditions met, except for start-up advance if agreed at negotiations and included in the financing agreement (Schedule 2)

  • Written application: Borrower can request for withdrawal only by means of written application in specified format along with relevant supporting evidence


Basic Principles of Loan Administration

  • Eligible expenditure: the following conditions should be met:

    • Incurred by project party

    • During project implementation period

    • Reasonable cost of goods & services procured

    • Per procurement procedures as per Schedule 4 of FA/ LTB

    • Per approved AWPB

    • Per percentages stated in Schedule 2/ LTB against eligible categories

    • Not prohibited by UNSC under Chapter VII of UN Charter

    • Not following any coercive, collusive, fraudulent or corrupt practice

    • Per financing agreement documents

  • Retroactive Funding: If Schedule 2 of FA expressly provides for retroactive funding, eligible expenditure incurred for project purposes before financing effectiveness can be reimbursed from loan account after effectiveness

  • Letter to the Borrower/ Disbursement Handbook: Sent by IFAD to Authorised Representative of Borrower outlining important financing provisions, disbursement procedures & guidelines


Basic Principles of Loan Administration

  • Disbursement process in IFAD: On receipt of Withdrawal Application (WA), the following steps are taken:

  • CFSreceives original documentation, while PMD receives a signed/scanned copy of the WA package

  • Review and checks are performed simultaneously by PMDand CFS

  • PMDcertifies that the expenditures are in line with approved AWPB and that procurement procedures are currently applied

  • CFS performs checks regarding accuracy and completeness of WAs andeligibility of expenditures considering the applicable rules and regulations

  • CFS may conduct independent verification of WA & sends approved Payment order to the Treasury Division to make payment

  • CFS issues debit advice to Borrower & implementing agencies & generates billing statements on fortnightly basis

  • Non approval of WA: IFAD informs Borrower about reasons for rejection & suggests corrective action to be taken

  • NOTE: Ad hoc procedures for IFAD Country Offices reviewing the WAs


IFAD Project & Legal Documents

Project Documents

IFAD Generic Documents

  • Loan & Grant Administration Operational Manual

  • Loan Disbursement Handbook

  • Procurement Guidelines

  • Audit Guidelines

  • Design Report

  • Financing Agreement

  • General Conditions

  • Minutes of Loan Negotiations

  • Amendments to Financing Agreement

  • Letter to the Borrower (LTB)

  • Project Implementation Manual (PIM)


Financing Agreement

Schedule 2 - Allocation & Withdrawal of Financing Proceeds

  • Category No. & description

  • Loan amount allocated to each category

  • % of expenditures to be financed

  • Definition of terms

  • Start-up advance, if envisaged

  • Retroactive Financing, if envisaged


IFAD Financing

  • Denominated in Special Drawing Rights (SDR) (only exception supplementary funds)

  • Withdrawal applications made in different currencies

  • Disbursement is converted in SDR & deducted from financing amount

Financing Milestone Dates

  • Board Approval Date

  • Financing Agreement Date

  • Effective/ Entry into Force Date

  • Project Completion Date

  • Loan Closing Date


Project Financing Agreement

Financing Agreement Date + Ratification, if required


“X” anniversary of Effective Date


Project Completion Date to Loan Closing Date


Project Completion Date + 6 months



First Disbursement - requirements

  • Financing declared effective/ entry into force

  • Evidence of opening of Designated Account (DA)

  • Letter on WA authorised signatories received

  • Signatories of persons authorised to operate DA & specimen signatures received

  • Disbursement condition/smet

  • AWPB & Procurement Plan approved

  • Withdrawal Application in order


Parties Involved

  • Borrower

  • IFAD

    • Country Programme Manager

    • Controller and Financial Services Division

    • Treasury

  • International Banking Channels

  • Local banks

  • 12

    Letter to the Borrower/ Disbursement Handbook

    Letter to the Borrower/ Disbursement Handbook. . .

    • Operational guidelines for withdrawal of loan/ grant funds for project purchases (procurement) of goods, works & consulting services, details of financial & audit reporting requirements

    • Explained to the Implementing Agency during Start-up mission

    • For new projects subject to revised General Conditions, Disbursement Handbook is an annex to revised Letter to the Borrower

    • Includes prescribed forms to be used by Implementing Agency in withdrawing funds from loan/ grant


    Letter to the Borrower/Disbursement Handbook

    . . explains the following topics:

    • Disbursement Conditions (Opening of Designated Accounts, appointment of officers authorised to operate DA & sign WAs, etc)

    • Disbursement Procedures

    • Designated Accounts

    • Instructions for Withdrawal

    • Annual Work Plan & Budget & Procurement Plan

    • Allocation of Financing Proceeds

    • Procurement of Goods, Works & Consulting Services, including Methods

    • Review of Procurement Decisions by IFAD

    • Programme Reviews & Periodic Assessments

    • Financial Reporting & Auditing

    • Project Completion/ Financing Closure

    • Amendments


    Disbursement Handbook – Topics

    • Basic Principles & Financing Administration

    • Instructions for Withdrawal

    • Disbursement Procedures

    • Statement of Expenditure

    • Register of Contracts/ Contract Monitoring


    Disbursement Handbook – Attachments

    • Sample letter of evidence of authority to sign WA

    • Instruction for completing forms

    • The various forms for use with 4 Disbursement Procedures

      • Initial Deposit Advance/Replenishment to Special/ Designated Account

      • Direct payment procedure

      • Special commitment procedure

      • Reimbursement procedure

    • SOE provision & eligibility

    • Project Checklist – Form & Instructions in completing form

    • Register of Contracts

    • Status of Financial Statements & Audit Report


    Disbursement Procedures

    Withdrawal of Loan Funds

    (Explained in the Letter to the Borrower)

    Special Account

    Procedure 1

    Direct Payment Procedure 2

    Disbursement Procedures

    Reimbursement Procedure 4

    Special Commitment Procedure 3


    Special/ Designated Account (Procedure I)

    • A facility provided in Letter to the Borrower for advance funding from IFAD

    • Initial Deposit/Advance – paid in USD or other freely convertible currency

    • Replenishment applications should be submitted regularly using specified forms – usually on quarterly basis (see checklist)


    Special/ Designated Account


    • Special Account/Designated provisions are found in in Section 4.04(d) of General Conditions

    • Article IV deals with Loan Account & Withdrawals - Withdrawals from loan & grant accounts, special commitments, WAs, transfers, allocation & reallocation of financing proceeds, value dates of withdrawals, eligible expenditures & refund of withdrawals

    • There are 3 stagesin operation of the Designated Account during project life:

      • Payment of Authorized Allocationor Initial Deposit

      • Replenishment to Designated Account

      • Recovery of Authorized Allocation


    Special Account

    Payment of Authorised Allocation (Initial Deposit)/Advance

    • Review wording of disbursement conditionsin Financing Agreement

    • Ensure receipt of evidence of opening of SPA/ DA& Letter on authorized persons to operate account

    • Check if opening of SPA is condition for effectiveness

    • After IFAD payment, issue SPA letter

    • The financing agreement may provide that authorised allocation/advance is paid in 1,2 or more tranches

    • During project implementation, authorised allocation may be increased through amendment to financing agreement


    Special Account

    Replenishment to Special/ Designated Account

    Check following items

    • Exchange rateused

    • Frequency of submission of WAs

    • Adequacy of supporting documentation

    • Correct use of summary sheets

    • Replenishment during recovery period – should equal the balance of the agreed percentage of expenditures duly justified

    • Exercise care in reviewing WA to determine which expenditures are eligible under SOE& which are subject to supporting documentation

    • Usually minimum 20% of Authorised Allocation


    Special Account

    Recovery of Authorised Allocation (Initial Deposit)/Advance

    • Timing of recovery: monitor 3 trigger points (see paragraph 230 of the loans & grants administration manual) ,whichever comes first

    • Percentage of recovery: to be confirmed by CPM

    • Exchange rateto be used is historic rate at value date of payment of initial deposit

    • Maintenance of SPA/ DA Initial Deposit/ Advance Recovery Control& reconciliation of unjustified balance with LGS

    • At start of recovery – issue SPA/ DA Recovery Letter

    • Amount for refund to IFAD

      • Unjustified balance per IFAD records; not balance in bank

      • Unjustified balance should be reconciled with LGS

      • When the initial deposit is fully justified, any balance in bank should remain with Borrower & should not be refunded to IFAD; all future replenishments are processed as reimbursements to Government

    • Loan account cannot be closed by IFAD if Authorised Allocation/ Advance is not fully justified or unjustified portion is not refunded to IFAD


    Special Account/ Statement of Expenditures

    Special/ DesignatedAccount

    Statement of Expenditures

    • Relates to funding

    • Eligibility applies to all categories

    • Relates to the submission of prescribed form in lieu of required supporting documentation

    • Eligibility is limited to coverage provided in Financing Agreement or prescribed by IFAD


    Special /Designated Account Reconciliation

    To be provided with every WA for Replenishment

    Reflects position of end of period covered by WA

    Should reflect all bank balances supported by bank statements as perSpecial/ Designated Account Reconciliation Format

    Eachlineof SPA/ DA Reconciliation should be completed perNotes & Instructions enclosed


    Direct Payment (Procedure II)

    • Project instructs IFAD to make payment directly to a supplier, contractor, consultant, or any other third party

    • Minimum of approximately $20,000 equivalent for each Direct Payment

    • For payments below approximately $20,000, Project should useDesignated / special Account funds

    • Documentation should show evidence of:

    • Amounts due (invoice, statement or demand note)

    • Initial or advance payments, progress payments on contract (as recorded on the contract monitoring form), progress certificate & invoice/ purchase order

    Note: Payment instructions in WA must be clear & complete


    Special Commitment (Procedure III)

    Disbursement procedure for payment of goods covered under a Letter of Credit

    Stages / Processes

    • Project opens LC & sends WA to IFAD, with copy of LC & contract (Form 301)

    • IFAD sends SC Letter to bank of supplier as guarantee of payment (Form 302)

    • Bank sends request for payment to IFAD when LC conditions are met (Form 303)


    Special Commitment Procedure


    • A special withdrawal application (Form 301)is submitted by Project when agreed modality of payment for procurement of goods is through a Letter of Credit (LC)

    • This WA is processed & reviewed using Checklist 3 for Special Commitment

    • After processing by CPM, certified Checklist is forwarded to regional office (where applicable)


    Special Commitment Procedure

    Issuance of Special Commitment Letter

    • Based on the certified Checklist, regional office prepares a draft Special Commitment Letter (SCL), using Form 302 & sends it to finance division in Rome together with checklist for signature. LC details are duly reflected in the SCL. Completed SCL signed by Controller is mailed to negotiating bank (addressee of the SCL) with Form 303 as an attachment

    • The value of the Special Commitment (the amount requested in WA Form 301) is converted into SDR using prevailing IMF rate as of preparation date & small percentage added to cater for exchange rate fluctuations

    • SCLs that are issued for each loan/ grant are numbered sequentially

    • Checklist is used to verify the steps in preparation & issuance of SCL


    Special Commitment Procedure

    Payment Instructions on Special Commitments

    • Once the terms of LC are complied with, negotiating bank sends request for reimbursementvia SWIFT to IFAD Treasury or through written request for payment (Form 303)

    • Treasury sends SWIFT message of negotiating bank to regional Office

    • After completion of checking process, Payment Order (PO) to pay the negotiating bank is prepared using prescribed format for Special Commitment payment

    • The Payment that is authorised in PO is recorded in Special Commitment Payment Summary, quoting WA number & LC Reference Number


    Reimbursement (Procedure IV)

    • An expenditure pre-financed by Government or other sources

    • Reimbursed by IFAD in currency of expenditure

    • Reimbursement applications should be submitted normally within 3 months from date of payment



    • Withdrawal Application Forms

    • Application Summary Sheets

    • Statement of Expenditure Forms

    • Register of Contracts

    • Special/ Designated Account Reconciliation Statement

    • Project WA Checklist

    • IFAD WA Checklist


    WA Forms

    Withdrawal Application – Form 100

    • Sequential numbering irrespective of disbursement procedure used

    • All sections should be completed

    • Payment instructions must reflect complete name & address of bank & beneficiary’s account number, including correspondent bank, if required


    Application Summary Sheet

    Form 101-A (SA) & 101-B (Direct Payment/ Reimbursement to Government)

    For direct payment and for reimbursement of expenditures not eligible under SOE

    Supporting documents must be attached

    Form 102-A (SA) and 102-B (to Government)

    Prescribed form for expenditures eligible under SOE

    Supporting documents not required to be submitted;

    SOE form must be signed by designated Project staff


    Supporting Documentation

    For expenditures that are eligible under SOE

    Prescribed SOE Form 102A or 102B, with certification text, duly certified by 3 designated signatories: Project Accountant, Project Coordinator & WA signatory

    For direct payment to a contractor, supplier or consultant

    • Summary Sheet Form 101B, together with the following, as applicable:

    • Copy of invoice (or Demand Letter, Statement), certified for payment by Project Coordinator

    • Copy of contract(for 1st progress payment) or contract monitoring form

    • Copy of purchase order

    • Copy of bank guarantee, for advance payment &/ or performance

    • Copy of delivery receipt for goods

    • Copy of certification for works completed on civil works

    • Copy of consultant’s report, if required, for final payment to be made

    Note: Since original copies of above documents are retained by PCU for audit purposes, a photocopy is accepted as supporting documentation


    Supporting Documentation

    For replenishment to the Special/ DesignatedAccount

    • The certified SOE form 102A, for eligible expenditures

    • Summary Sheet Form 101A with copy of above documents (as applicable) plus evidence of payment (receipt or bank statement), for expenditures not eligible under SOE

    • Special/ Designated Account Reconciliation Statement, together with Bank Statement by SPA/ DA holding bank

    For Special Commitment

    • Copy of Letter of Credit opened by Project

    • Copy ofcontract

    For all WAs, irrespective of disbursement procedure

    • Project Checklist certified by Project Accountant & Project Coordinator

    • Summary Breakdown by Category that adds up to WA amount

    • Copy of CPM’s No Objectionto procurement of goods, works or consultancy services


    SOE Procedure

    • CPM sends official notification on SOE coverage to Borrower

    • SOE arrangements specified in LTB

    • Amendment to Financing Agreement not required for changes in SOE coverage/ thresholdunless SOE threshold is specified in Financing Agreement


    Statement of Expenditure

    Provision in Financing Agreement

    The Financing Agreement provision for SOE is always found in Schedule 2

    Items that should be taken into consideration

    • SOE cases, taking into account whether threshold is applicable on contracts or expenditure

    • The interpretation of the SOE coverage as provided in: (i) Financing agreement; (ii) Minutes of Loan Negotiation; or (iii) Agreement reached during Start-up Mission– giving particular attention to financial ceiling (usually $20,000)

    • The types of expenditures normally fully eligible under SOE. Examples: Credit, Local training, Local salaries & allowances, Operating Costs & Civil Works on Force Account


    Statement of Expenditure

    Prescribed SOE forms

    • SOE Form 102A for replenishment to Special/ Designated Account

    • SOEForm 102B for reimbursement of pre-financed expenditures

    • Certification text is required for each SOE form

    • 3 signaturesare always required: Project Accountant, Project Coordinator & WA Signatory

    Other items to take note of

    • Relationship between SOE financial ceiling& procurement prior reviewthreshold

    • Proper filing systemin PCU to enable audit trail during supervision missions

    • Audit of SOE & separate opinionby independent auditor


    For Prompt Disbursements

    Ensure (1)

    • Authorised Signatories for WAs

    • Banking Instructions, including correspondent bank

    • Complete Supporting documentation

    • Statement of Expenditure eligibility

    • Procurement Procedures

    • Terms of payment (contract payment terms)

    • Currency of expenditure

    • Correct % of financing

    Ensure (2)

    • Disbursement conditions are met (Sch 2 of Financing Agreement)

    • Withdrawal Application Size:Direct Payment: usually minimum approximately $20,000 Repl. to SPA/ DA: 20% of Authorised Allocation/ Advance (or more)

    • Exchange Rate correctly calculated

    • Accuracy of computations


    Withdrawal Application Submission

    WA Contents

    Each WA submission should consist of the following

    • Required supporting documentation

    • Withdrawal Application Amount

      • If final WA amount approved is lowerthan WA submission, PO can be released & Project is advised on reductions made

      • If the final WA amount approved is higher than WA submission, Project should be advised on findings & corrections made (in practice WAs may be processed in reduced (not increased) amounts from what is indicated in Form 100. If amount payable is more than what is in Form 100, project is advised to claim in subsequent WA)

      • A WA can be authorised for partial payment & balance paid in separate PO

    • WAChecklist(Form 105)


    Withdrawal Application Submission

    Withdrawal Application Form 100

    • The preparation & approval of WA at project level is a long process involving project staff & concerned officers in relevant Ministry

    • The Project is required to submit prescribed Form 100signed by designated WA signatory

    • WA without authorized signatureswill not be processed

    • When a WA is not signed at all or only 1 of 2 required signatories signed, project is required to send new WA with required signature or signatures


    Withdrawal Application Submission

    Written Communication

    Written Communicationfrom Project authority is required for the following:

    • Change of WA authorized signatories– Original signed letter from representative of Borrower

    • When PO already issued& payment was made on WA, Project’s request for adjustment in WA submitted – Original signed letter from Project Coordinator

    • Confirmation on increase in WA amount as result of review

    • Change in bank where Special Account is maintained

    • Change of account number, in same bank, due to changes in bank’s system

    • Confirmation of last WA submitted before closing of Loan Account


    Withdrawal Application Submission

    Email Communication

    Email Communicationfrom Project authority is acceptable for the following:

    • Change in the categoryto charge

    • Information on correspondent bank or change in correspondent bank

    • Any other relevant informationprovided by project relating to claim in WA

    Project should complete all sections in WA


    Foreign Exchange Translation

    Usage of Exchange rates

    The usage of exchange rates in IFAD loans applies to one of the following areas:

    Conversion of IFAD financing in US Dollars (USD) to Special Drawing Rights (SDR)

    Conversion of withdrawals from loan accountbased on approved WAs submitted in various currencies into SDR

    For replenishment to Special Account, conversion of local currency expenditures funded from Special Account into currency denomination of Special Account, e.g. USD, Euro

    Conversion of amounts submitted through WAs as justification of authorised allocation(initial deposit) to Special Account


    Foreign Exchange Translation

    Conversion of IFAD Loan into SDR

    • The IFAD loan is reflected in Design Report in US Dollars

    • During financing negotiationsbetween representatives of Borrower & IFAD, US Dollar loan amount is converted into SDR using prevailing USD/ SDR rate at the end of month preceding loan negotiation

    • Likewise, amounts allocated to each category are converted into SDR using same exchange rate

    • Financing amount is fixed & is reflected in relevant sections of financing agreement

    • If the project is partially financed from a grant, known as project-component grant, grant amount is also denominated in SDR

    • SDR rate are listed on a daily basis by the International Monitory Fund& available through its website –


    Foreign Exchange Translation

    Conversion of withdrawals made from Loan/ Grant Account

    • Loans & project-component grants are denominated in SDR

    • Disbursements from loan/ grant accountare made in currencies in which expenditures to be financed from loan/ grant proceeds have been paid or are payable

    • Each withdrawal applicationthat is submitted by Borrower is paid in currency requested in WA& approved by IFAD

    • The payment made is converted into SDR using prevailing rate as of value dateof payment, i.e., date of debit of IFAD’s bank account for equivalent amount of disbursement

    • For withdrawal requests denominated in currencies other than USD, requests are converted first into USD using prevailing UN rate during month of payment thereafter converted & SDR as above


    Foreign Exchange Translation

    Conversion of local currency expenditures funded from Special Account

    • When preparing WA for replenishment to Special/ Designated Account, local currency expenditures are converted into denomination of Special Account, using prevailing rate at time of transfer of funds from Special Account to Project Operating Accountin order to recoup actual value of transfer made

    • One of the tools to be used by Project in monitoring special accounts movements & operation is Special/ Designated Account Reconciliation Statement. This statement is submitted with each WA for replenishment to Special/ Designated Account


    Foreign Exchange Translation

    Conversion of WAs used as Justification (or Recovery) of Initial Deposit/ Advance to Special/ Designated Account

    • 3 trigger pointsfor start of justification of initial deposit/ advance to Special/ Designated Account; whichever comes first shall be applied:

      • 6 months before Project completion Date,

      • When undisbursed balance of financing, less outstanding Special Commitments, is equal to twice the amount of Authorised Allocation, or

      • When the undisbursed balance of the loan is less than 10% of the total loan balance

    • When either of the trigger points is reached, each request for replenishment to Special/ Designated Accountwill be used partially or in full, as justification of Authorised Allocation/ Advance

    • Exchange rate used for partial/ full justification is historic rate – rate at which authorised allocation/ advance was paid