Nutrition
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Chapter 9. Nutrition. Protein Fat Carbohydrates. Water Vitamins Minerals. Health Goal #31: I Will Select Foods That Contain Nutrients. Substances that help with body processes, growth, repair of cells and provide energy. Calorie = unit of energy produced by food and used by the body.

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Nutrition

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Chapter 9

Nutrition


Protein

Fat

Carbohydrates

Water

Vitamins

Minerals

Health Goal #31: I Will Select Foods That Contain Nutrients

Substances that help with body processes, growth, repair of cells and provide energy

Calorie = unit of energy produced by food and used by the body


Protein

  • Function – growth and repair

  • Kcal value – 4 Kcal/gram

  • Types – complete/incomplete

  • Basic breakdown – amino acids


Carbohydrates

  • Function – instant energy

  • Kcal value – 4 Kcal/gram

  • Types – single/complex

  • Basic breakdown – glucose

Fiber is part of grains and plants that cannot be digested


Fats

  • Function – long-term energy/storage

  • Kcal value – 9 Kcal/gram

  • Types – saturated/unsaturated

  • Basic breakdown – fatty acids


Vitamins

  • Function – assists with body processes

  • Kcal value – 0

  • Types – water (BC) and fat soluble (ADEK)


Minerals

  • Function – regulates chemical reactions in body

  • Kcal value – 0

  • Types

    • Macro minerals (required in larger amounts)

    • Trace minerals (needed in small amounts)


Water

  • Function – waste removal, blood formation, body regulation

  • Kcal value – 0

  • Water makes up 60% of body weight

  • Recommendation: 6-8 glasses per day


Health Goal #32: I Will Evaluate Food Labels


Health Goal #33: I Will Eat the Recommended Number of Servings from the Food Guide Pyramid


Vegetarian Diet

There are four kinds of vegetarian diets:

  • Vegan

  • Lacto-vegetarian

  • Ovo-lacto-vegetarian

  • Semi-vegetarian

Vegetables are the foundation in this diet


Health Goal #34: I Will Follow the Dietary Guidelines (Figure 9-2)

  • Aim for Fitness

    • Aim for a healthy weight

    • Be physically active each day

  • Build a Healthy Base

    • Let the pyramid guide your food choices

    • Choose a variety of grains (whole) daily

    • Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily

    • Keep food safe to eat

  • Choose Sensibly

    • Choose a diet low in saturated fat

    • Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugars

    • Choose and prepare food with less salt

    • Drink alcohol in moderation


  • Avoid obesity

    Eat a variety of foods

    Eat several servings and a variety of fruits/vegetables

    Eat several servings of fiber-rich foods

    Limit fat intake, especially saturated fat

    Limit consumption of foods that are processed

    Avoid drinking alcohol

    Health Goal #35: I Will Plan a Healthful Diet That Reduces My Risk of Disease

    To reduce the risk of developing cancer:


    Diets and Cardiovascular Diseases

    • Cardiovascular disease affects the heart and blood vessels

    • The risk can be reduced by practicing the following:

      • Achieve and maintain a healthy eating pattern from each of the major food groups

      • Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight

      • Achieve and maintain a desirable blood cholesterol profile

      • Achieve and maintain a normal blood pressure


    Other Diseases or Conditions

    • Be watchful for the following with regard to your food intake:

      • Diabetes (metabolic disorder regarding insulin)

      • Hypoglycemia (body produces low blood sugar)

      • Osteoporosis (decrease in bone density)


    Food Allergies and Intolerances

    • Food allergy is an abnormal response of the immune system to food and could result in a medical emergency

    • Infants are more likely than adults to have a food allergy (4-6%)

    • Many infants will outgrow their food allergies

    • Food additives can also cause allergic reactions (e.g., MSG)

    Anaphylaxis is a severe reaction that needs medical attention


    Intolerances

    • Intolerance is an abnormal response to food that is not caused by the immune system

    • Lactase deficiency (lack of lactase) is the most common

    • Celiac disease is intolerance to gluten (wheat product)

    Anaphylaxis is a severe reaction that needs medical attention


    Health Goal #36: I Will Develop Healthful Eating Habits

    • People need to eat when they are hungry

    • Appetite is a desire to eat that comes from

      factors other than hunger

    • To develop healthful eating habits, people must

      understand why they eat and when they should eat

    • Careful planning of breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks requires proper knowledge of your body needs


    Health Goal #37: I Will Follow the Dietary Guidelines When I Go Out to Eat

    • Consider the following concepts when making decisions about your food consumption:

      • Proper table manners

      • Proper ordering of fast foods

      • Proper ordering from a restaurant menu

      • Proper ordering at ethnic restaurants


    Health Goal #38: I Will Protect Myself from Food-borne Illnesses

    • Food-borne Illnesses are caused by consuming pathogens in contaminated food or beverages

    • Common serious food-borne illnesses are due to:

      • E. coli 0157:H7

      • Campylobactor

      • Salmonella

      • Calicivirus/Norwalk

      • Others: Shigella, Cryptosporidia, botulism


    Food Safety

    • Recognize possible hazards or potential risks

      • At the store

      • In the refrigerator

      • In the kitchen

      • On the table

      • Leftovers

      • At a restaurant

    Report food-borne illness as well as food safety offenders


    Health Goal #39: I Will Maintain a Desirable Weight andBody Composition

    • Identify these terms:

      • Body frame

      • BMR (basal metabolic rate)

      • Desirable weight

      • Essential body fat

      • Obesity


    Have a physical exam

    Have the physician/dietician determine the number of pounds you need to gain

    Have a physician/dietician design the plan

    Increase the number of servings from each food group in the Food Pyramid Guide

    Follow the Dietary Guidelines and do not develop harmful eating habits

    Eat healthful snacks between meals

    Exercise to increase your muscle mass

    Drink plenty of fluids

    Ask your family and friends to support your efforts to gain weight

    Keep a journal of your food and beverages intake and your weight gain

    Weight-Gain Strategies


    Weight-Loss Strategies

    • Fad diets

    • Liquid diets

    • Prescription medications

    • OTC diet pills

    • Diuretics and laxatives


    Health Goal #40: I Will Develop Skills to Prevent Eating Disorders

    • An eating disorder is a mental disorder in which a person has a compelling need to starve, binge, or binge and purge

    • Young people with eating disorders feel compelled to starve, eat to excess, vomit, use laxatives and diuretics, or exercise to control weight


    Risks for Developing anEating Disorder

    • Overemphasis on appearance

    • Discomfort with sexual maturity

    • Perfectionism

    • Need for control

    • Inability to express emotions

    • Social pressure from media and peers

    • Pressure felt by athletes


    Types of Eating Disorders

    • Anorexia nervosa

    • Bulimia

    • Binge-eating disorder


    Chapter 9

    Nutrition


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