Ecosystems
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Ecosystems. Studying organisms in their environment. biosphere. ecosystem. community. population. organism. Essential questions. What limits the production in ecosystems? How do nutrients move in the ecosystem? How does energy move through the ecosystem?. Ecosystem.

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Ecosystems

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Ecosystems

Ecosystems


Studying organisms in their environment

Studying organisms in their environment

biosphere

ecosystem

community

population

organism


Essential questions

Essential questions

  • What limits the production in ecosystems?

  • How do nutrients move in the ecosystem?

  • How does energy move through the ecosystem?


Ecosystem

Ecosystem

  • All the organisms in a community plus abiotic factors

    • ecosystems are transformers of energy& processors of matter

  • Ecosystems are self-sustaining

    • what is needed?

  • capture energy

  • transfer energy

  • cycle nutrients


Ecosystem inputs

Ecosystem inputs

biosphere

constant inputof energy

energy flowsthrough

nutrients cycle

Don’t forgetthe laws of Physics!

Matter cannot

be created ordestroyed

nutrients can only cycle

inputs

  • energy

  • nutrients


Generalized nutrient cycling

Decompositionconnects all trophic levels

Generalized Nutrient cycling

consumers

consumers

producers

consumers

decomposers

decomposers

nutrientsENTER FOOD CHAIN= made availableto producers

nutrientsmade availableto producers

return toabioticreservoir

abioticreservoir

abioticreservoir

geologicprocesses

geologicprocesses


Carbon cycle

CO2 in

atmosphere

Combustion of fuels

Industry and home

Photosynthesis

Diffusion

Respiration

Plants

Animals

Dissolved CO2

Bicarbonates

Photosynthesis

Deposition

of dead

material

Animals

Plants and algae

Fossil fuels

(oil, gas, coal)

Deposition of

dead material

Carbonates in sediment

  • abiotic reservoir:

    • CO2 in atmosphere

  • enter food chain:

    • photosynthesis = carbon fixation in Calvin cycle

  • recycle:

  • return to abiotic:

    • respiration

    • combustion

Carbon cycle


Nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen cycle

  • abiotic reservoir:

    • N in atmosphere

  • enter food chain:

    • nitrogen fixation by soil & aquatic bacteria

  • recycle:

    • decomposing & nitrifying bacteria

  • return to abiotic:

    • denitrifying bacteria

Atmospheric

nitrogen

Carnivores

Herbivores

Birds

Plants

Plankton with

nitrogen-fixing

bacteria

Death, excretion, feces

Nitrogen-fixing

bacteria

(plant roots)

Fish

Decomposing bacteria

amino acids

excretion

Nitrogen-fixing

bacteria

(soil)

Ammonifying bacteria

loss to deep sediments

Nitrifying bacteria

Denitrifying

bacteria

soil nitrates


Phosphorus cycle

  • abiotic reservoir:

    • rocks, minerals, soil

  • enter food chain:

    • erosion releases soluble phosphate

    • uptake by plants

  • recycle:

    • decomposing bacteria & fungi

  • return to abiotic:

    • loss to ocean sediment

Phosphorus cycle

Land

animals

Plants

Animal tissue

and feces

Urine

Soluble soil

phosphate

Decomposers

(bacteria and

fungi)

Loss in

drainage

Rocks and

minerals

Phosphates

in solution

Decomposers

(bacteria & fungi)

Animal tissue

and feces

Plants and

algae

Aquatic

animals

Precipitates

Loss to deep sediment


Ecosystems

  • abiotic reservoir:

    • surface & atmospheric water

  • enter food chain:

    • precipitation & plant uptake

  • recycle:

    • transpiration

  • return to abiotic:

    • evaporation & runoff

Water cycle

Solar energy

Transpiration

Water vapor

Evaporation

Precipitation

Oceans

Runoff

Lakes

Percolation in soil

Aquifer

Groundwater


Transpiration

Transpiration

Remembertranspiration?


Breaking the water cycle

Breaking the water cycle

  • Deforestation breaks the water cycle

    • groundwater is not transpired to the atmosphere, so precipitation is not created

forest  desert

desertification


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