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Author: Dr. Harold Johnson Kent State University. Date submitted to deafed.net – February 7, 2006 To contact the author for permission to use this PowerPoint, please e-mail: [email protected] To use this PowerPoint presentation in its entirety, please give credit to the author.

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Author dr harold johnson kent state university
Author: Dr. Harold Johnson Kent State University

  • Date submitted to deafed.net – February 7, 2006

  • To contact the author for permission to use this PowerPoint, please e-mail: [email protected]

  • To use this PowerPoint presentation in its entirety, please give credit to the author.


Language assessment conversational model
Language Assessment: Conversational Model

  • SPED 4/53310 Language Assessment & Intervention with Students who are d/hh

  • Harold Johnson/Kent State University

  • Fall ’05

  • Undergraduate/Graduate course

  • For more information, please call me at 330 672-0735


The johnson conversational model
The Johnson Conversational Model

  • Occurrence

  • Segments

  • Tasks

  • Behaviors

  • Channels

    Reference: Easterbrooks S., Baker S. (2002). Language learning in children who are deaf and hard of hearing: Multiple pathways. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

    Multimedia segments added by Courtney Sajben, with assistance from: David Sajben, Leslie Baird, Laurie Suthern, Britt Andrews, John Kruger and Christina Todd.


Conversational occurrence
...Conversational Occurrence

Conversations

day

During the course of a day, an individual will have numerous conversations.


Conversational segments
...Conversational Segments

middle

beginning

end

Each conversational exchange, can be divided into three basic parts....


Conversational tasks
...Conversational Tasks

middle

3

9

5

4

8

beginning

end

6

10

2

7

1

1

1. Prior to the conversation

4. Exchange pleasantries

2. Gain the individual’s attention

5. Establish the topic

3. Note the onset of the conversation

6. Exchange information

During each segment of the conversation specific tasks must be accomplished


Conversational tasks cont
...Conversational Tasks (cont.)

middle

3

9

5

4

8

beginning

end

6

10

2

7

1

1

7. Recognize & repair communication breakdowns

8. Bring the conversation to a close

9. Mark the end of the conversation

10. Leave the conversation














Recognize and repair communication breakdowns
Recognize and RepairCommunication Breakdowns









Conversational behaviors
...Conversational Behaviors

3

9

5

4

8

6

10

2

7

1

1

Reflexive Behaviors

Signal Behaviors

Symbolic Behaviors

Conversational tasks are accomplished via the use of three types of behaviors


Conversational behaviors cont
...Conversational Behaviors (cont.)

  • Reflexive Behaviors:

    • Occur all the time

    • Represent external manifestations of internal states, e.g., an itch causes you to scratch or a bit of grit in your eye causes you to blink

    • Not intended to convey communicative intent (Note: cultural differences can cause miss communications)


Conversational behaviors cont1
...Conversational Behaviors (cont.)

  • Signal Behaviors:

    • Occur from conversational tasks #2 through # 10

    • Represent a purposeful pattern of behavior that is designed to convey communicative intent, e.g., a “wave of the hand,” a “shrug of the shoulder,” or a “head nod.”

    • Require a supportive physical context to be correctly interpreted, i.e., the intended meaning of the behavior can not be correctly interpreted outside a narrow range of settings.


Conversational behaviors cont2
...Conversational Behaviors (cont.)

  • Symbolic Behaviors:

    • occur from conversational tasks # 4 through #8

    • Represent a purposeful pattern of either spoken or signed behavior that is designed to convey communicative intent, e.g., a word, phrase or sentence.

    • Represent symbolic vs. concrete communicative behaviors, as such, the intended meaning can be correctly interpreted in a wide range of settings.


Conversational channels

3

9

5

4

8

6

10

2

7

1

1

Reflexive Behaviors

Signal Behaviors

Symbolic Behaviors

...Conversational Channels

Visual

Motorical

Verbal

Conversational behaviors are carried out through use of three channels of behaviors


So how will you use all of this information
So...how will YOU use all of this information?

  • 1st you will use the information to carry out an informal analysis of your own language use and problems.

    • as you carry out this analysis, you will learn how to observe, record and chart data, analyze problems, hypothesize solutions and then, through a trial-and-error process, you will see if your hypothesis were correct, finally ending with a summary written synthesis of what you found and what you learned.


How will you cont
...how will you (cont.)

  • Once you have learned the information as it applies to you, then you apply the same process in your study of a student who is d/hh within your practicum placement

  • Basic concept....first understand something as it relates to you, then to others...ergo, if you can’t figure out how the information fits for you, you will not be able to figure out how it fits for others


What are the steps you will use to implement this conversational model of language assessment and intervention?

  • In essence, the steps are as follows:

    • identify the best context (i.e., person, place & time) to observe

      • What makes for a good context?


What are the steps cont
...What are the steps... (cont.) conversational model of language assessment and intervention?

  • ...context identification

  • Topic identification

    • What do you talk about & How often do you talk about ‘x’ vs. ‘y’

  • Identification of communication breakdowns

    • What does a breakdown look like?

    • Which Topics have the most breakdowns?

    • What happens following a breakdown?


What are the steps cont1
...What are the steps... (cont.) conversational model of language assessment and intervention?

  • ...context iden.

  • ...topic iden.

  • ...com. breakdown iden.

  • Intervention Effort

    • Target the topic with the most com. breakdowns.

    • Analyze what occurs just before the breakdown and why the breakdown occurs.

    • Refine description of the com. breakdown indicators

    • Hypothesize why breakdowns occur on that topic (e.g., topic establishment patterns or conflicting conversational tasks)

    • Identify an ‘alternative behavior, i.e., one that might reduce the frequency or severity of topical com. breakdowns.

    • Try out...several times...the alternative behavior...use data to decide if you are successful or not.


What are the steps cont2
...What are the steps... (cont.) conversational model of language assessment and intervention?

  • ...context iden.

  • ...topic iden.

  • ...com. breakdown iden.

  • ...intervention effort

  • Resulting Insights re.

    • Language use

    • Occurrence and Causes of Communication Breakdowns

    • Assessment of Communication Problems

    • Intervention of Communication Problems

    • Gathering and Tracking Assessment and Intervention Data

      Note: this is where YOU reflect about what you have learned via the obs. study – this is where an ‘A’ is earned


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