Neesr sg controlled rocking of steel framed buildings with replaceable energy dissipating fuses
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NEESR-SG: Controlled Rocking of Steel-Framed Buildings with Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses. Gregory G. Deierlein, Sarah Billington, Helmut Krawinkler, Xiang Ma Stanford University Jerome F. Hajjar, Matthew Eatherton University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

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Neesr sg controlled rocking of steel framed buildings with replaceable energy dissipating fuses

NEESR-SG: Controlled Rocking of Steel-Framed Buildings with Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses

Gregory G. Deierlein, Sarah Billington,

Helmut Krawinkler, Xiang Ma Stanford University

Jerome F. Hajjar, Matthew Eatherton University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Mitsumasa Midorikawa, Hokkaido University

Toru Takeuchi, Tokyo Institute of Technology

T. Hikino, Hyogo Earthquake Engineering Research Center

David Mar, Tipping & Mar Associates andGreg Luth, GPLA

In-Kind Funding: Tefft Bridge and Iron of Tefft, IN, MC Detailers of Merrillville, IN, Munster Steel Co. Inc. of Munster, IN, Infra-Metals of Marseilles, IN, and Textron/Flexalloy Inc. Fastener Systems Division of Indianapolis, IN.


Key Short Comings of Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses Modern Seismic Design

Throw-away technology:

Structure and Architecture absorbs energy through damage

Large Inter-story Drifts:

Result in architectural & structural damage

High Accelerations:

Result in content damage

& loss of function

Deformed Section – Eccentric Braced Frame


New system
New System Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses

Develop a new structural building system that employs self-centering rocking action and replaceable* fuses to provide safe and cost effective earthquake resistance.

Shear Fuse

Post-tensioning

*Key Concept – design for repair


Controlled rocking system
Controlled Rocking System Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses

Component 3 – Replaceable energy dissipating fuses take majority of damage

Component 2 – Post-tensioning strands bring frame back down during rocking

Component 1 – Stiff braced frame, designed to remain essentially elastic - not tied down to the foundation.

Bumper or Trough


Pretension/Brace System Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses

Fuse System

c

b

c

d

e

b

Base Shear

a,f

Base Shear

Fuse Strength

Eff. Fuse

Stiffness

a

d

PT Strength

g

Drift

Frame Stiffness

g

f

e

Drift

b

c

Origin-a – frame strain + small distortions in fuse

a – frame lift off, elongation of PT

b – fuse yield (+)

c – load reversal (PT yields if continued)

d – zero force in fuse

e – fuse yield (-)

f – frame contact

f-g – frame relaxation

g – strain energy left in frame and fuse, small residual displacement

Base Shear

2x Fuse

Strength

d

a

PT

Strength

e

f

PT – Fuse Strength

g

Drift

Combined System


Rocking Braced Frame w/Post Tensioning Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses


Phase i shear fuse testing

Attributes of Fuse Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses

high initial stiffness

large strain capacity

energy dissipation

Candidate Fuse Designs

ductile fiber cementitious composites

steel panels with slits

low-yield steel

mixed sandwich panels

damping devices

Phase I: Shear Fuse Testing

Panel Size: 400 x 900 mm


Butterfly link: Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses b/a

Rectangular link: b/t and L/t

Welded end

Buckling-restrained

Fuse Configurations

thickness t

h

L

a

b

B


Testing Results: Butterfly Links Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses

B56-09

B36-10

B37-06

B14-02


Butterfly Links: Load-Deformation Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses

B36-10

B56-09

B37-06

B14-02


Phase ii half scale system tests

General Specimen Design Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses

Phase II: Half-Scale System Tests

In the Rig


Test setup at must sim facility

Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses

Test Setup at MUST-SIM Facility

Loading and Boundary Condition Box (LBCB)

Loading Beam Applies Loads to the Two Frames

Load Cell Pins Provide Load Data and Feedback for Control

Reaction Wall

Anchorage Plate for the Post-Tensioning

Bumpers Restrain Horizontal Movement (Not Shown Here)


Test matrix
Test Matrix Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses


Tested configurations
Tested Configurations Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses


Test results hysteretic behavior
Test Results – Hysteretic Behavior Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses

Test A2

Test A1


Test results fuse link buckling
Test Results – Fuse Link Buckling Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses


Test results post tensioning force
Test Results – Post Tensioning Force Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses

Test A2

Test A1


Test results left frame column uplift
Test Results – Left Frame Column Uplift Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses

Test A2

Test A1


Test results fuse shear strain
Test Results – Fuse Shear Strain Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses

Test A2

Test A1


Test Frame Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses

Test-bed Unit


Controlled rocking system test at e defense 2009
Controlled Rocking System Test at E-Defense (2009) Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses

  • Large (2/3 scale) frame assembly

  • Validation of dynamic response and simulation

  • Proof-of-Concept

    • construction details

    • re-centering behavior

    • fuse replacement

  • Collaboration & Payload Projects


Conclusions
Conclusions Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses

  • The controlled rocking system exhibits excellent self-centering and energy dissipating response. All indicators show that the system is constructable and viable for practice.

  • The controlled rocking system will reduce life cycle costs by reducing structural repair costs after an earthquake.

  • Butterfly steel plate shear fuses, tested at Stanford University, were able to sustain cyclic deformations as large as 25% shear strain or more and still absorb seismic energy.

  • Half scale tests at University of Illinois are in progress. Tests A1, A2, and A3 are complete. More tests to come.

  • Two-thirds scale shake table tests on a planar frame at E-Defense next summer will further validate system performance.

  • Design recommendations will be develoeped to allow implementation in practice.


Video of specimen a1
Video of Specimen A1 Replaceable Energy Dissipating Fuses

Six ¼” fuses buckled late in the loading history; Peak drift: 3%; Peak shear strain: 11%


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