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Introduction. Beginning-(~1500AD) da Vinci saw fossils in rks of Italian Apennines Concluded fossils once living marine organisms. Introduction. Steno- 1669-important contributor Principle of Original Horizontality Principle of Superposition Principle of Lateral Continuity.

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introduction
Introduction
  • Beginning-(~1500AD) da Vinci saw fossils in rks of Italian Apennines
    • Concluded fossils once living marine organisms
introduction1
Introduction
  • Steno- 1669-important contributor
    • Principle of Original Horizontality
    • Principle of Superposition
    • Principle of Lateral Continuity
steno principles
Steno Principles
  • Lateral Continuity
  • www.cerritos.edu

Superposition

Original Horizontality

ii development of sed strat as science
II. Development of Sed Strat as Science
  • Organization of sed rocks—Arduino (1714-15) divided rocks
    • Primary Mtns-metallic ores no fossils
    • Secondary Mtns-Stratified, lithified, fossiliferous, no fossils
    • Tertiary low Mtns- Fossiliferous, unconsolidated gravels, sands clay, volcanics
    • Alluvium- Sediment washed down from mtns
ii development of sed strat as science1
II. Development of Sed Strat as Science
  • Geologic Cycle and Uniformitarianism
    • James Hutton (1727-1797)-Scottish Physician, farmer
      • Noted cyclicity to earth’s behavior
      • Uplift, erosion, transport, deposition
    • Established Principle of Uniformitarianism or Actualism
      • present key to past but rates change and catastrophes occur
ii development of sed strat as science2
II. Development of Sed Strat as Science
  • Birth of Biostratigraphy & Stratigraphic Correlation
    • William Smith(1769-1839)-English surveyor, engineer
      • “father” of biostratigraphy
      • Canal builder noted relationship of fossils & rocks
      • Established law of faunal succession—fossils succeed each other in organized & recognizable fashion
      • Produced first geologic map
birth of biostratigraphy stratigraphic correlation
Birth of Biostratigraphy & Stratigraphic Correlation
  • D’Orbigny (1842)-developed biologic stage for rock division
    • strata systematically follow each other with characteristic fossil assemblage
  • Oppel (1856)- developed biologic zone
    • Rocks deposited during existence of specific fossil
    • Zones based of first appearance of last appearance of organisms
    • Zones could be correlated
ii development of sed strat as science3
II. Development of Sed Strat as Science
  • Petrographic microscope development
    • Sorby began microscopic study of rocks
    • Led to description and systematic study of rocks
  • Geologic Revolution-Seafloor Spreading and Plate Tectonics
    • 1950-1960s- Renaissance period
    • More funds, more geophysical exploration, Deep Sea Drilling Project
  • More oil exploration
slide9
New Tools
    • Magnetic and Seismic Surveying
      • Identification of normal/reverse periods led to magnetostratigraphy
      • Seismic surveying could identify units and unconformities, packages of related rocks
    • Isotope stratigraphy
      • Use carbon and oxygen isotopes to correlate units
magnetostratigraphy
Magnetostratigraphy

www.paleomag.net

seismic stratigraphy
Seismic Stratigraphy

www-odp.tamu.edu

ii development of sed strat as science4
II. Development of Sed Strat as Science
  • Sedimentary Rocks and Earth History
    • Paleoclimate
      • study of ancient climate
ii development of sed strat as science5
II. Development of Sed Strat as Science
  • Sedimentary Rocks and Earth History
    • Paleogeography
      • reconstruction of area for given time in past

Wiley.com

ii development of sed strat as science6
II. Development of Sed Strat as Science
  • Sedimentary Rocks and Earth History
    • Paleoecology & Evolution
      • studies relationships between ancient organisms & their environments
  • Life restoration of a group of giant azhdarchids, Quetzalcoatlus northropi, foraging on a Cretaceous fern prairie.

palaeoblog.blogspot.com

ii development of sed strat as science7
II. Development of Sed Strat as Science
  • Sedimentary Rocks and Earth History
    • Paleoceanography & Ancient Atmosphere
      • Composition of ancient oceans and atmosphere using isotopes

Frank Corsetti

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