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Glaciers. I. Origin of Glaciers. Definition. I. Origin of Glaciers. Definition Originates on land. I. Origin of Glaciers. Definition Originates on land Forms from the accumulation, compaction, and recrystallization of snow. I. Origin of Glaciers. Definition Originates on land

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I. Origin of Glaciers

  • Definition

  • Originates on land


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I. Origin of Glaciers

  • Definition

  • Originates on land

  • Forms from the accumulation, compaction, and recrystallization of snow


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I. Origin of Glaciers

  • Definition

  • Originates on land

  • Forms from the accumulation, compaction, and recrystallization of snow

  • Survives year-to-year


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I. Origin of Glaciers

  • Definition

  • Originates on land

  • Forms from the accumulation, compaction, and recrystallization of snow

  • Survives year-to-year

  • Moves under its own weight


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I. Origin of Glaciers

B. Elevation required


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I. Origin of Glaciers

B. Elevation required

sea level

18,000 ft.

10,000 ft.

sea level


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I. Origin of Glaciers

C. Mechanism of Formation


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Snow

C. Mechanism of Formation

Firn

Ice

Glacial Ice


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I. Origin of Glaciers

D. Behavior of Flow


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D. Behavior of Flow

  • Plastic Flow


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D. Behavior of Flow

2. Basal Sliding (Slip)


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D. Behavior of Flow

2. Basal Sliding (Slip)


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D. Behavior of Flow

3. Zone of Fracture (behaves as a brittle solid)

crevasses


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D. Behavior of Flow

3. Zone of Fracture


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II. Types of Glaciers

A. Alpine Glaciers


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II. Types of Glaciers

B. Continental Glaciers


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III. Glacial Movement

  • Two distinctive zones on glaciers:


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III. Glacial Movement

Zone of accumulation


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III. Glacial Movement

Zone of ablation


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III. Glacial Movement

  • Accumulation vs. ablation determines movement


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III. Glacial Movement

  • Accumulation vs. ablation determines movement


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IV. Glacial Erosion

A. Processes for erosion


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IV. Glacial Erosion

1) Plucking –



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IV. Glacial Erosion

2) Abrasion


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IV. Glacial Erosion

Glacial Striations


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IV. Glacial Erosion

Glacial Polish


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IV. Glacial Erosion

3) Bulldozing –





















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VI. Depositional Landforms

A) Moraines

  • Some of the varieties….


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VI. Depositional Landforms

Lateral and Medial Moraines

A) Moraines


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VI. Depositional Landforms

Lateral Moraine –

Lateral Moraine


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VI. Depositional Landforms

D) Medial Moraine –

Medial Moraine



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VI. Depositional Landforms

Ground and Terminal Moraines

A) Moraines


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VI. Depositional Landforms

Terminal moraine –









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VI. Depositional Landforms

E ) Outwash plain –



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VII. Ice Ages

  • Cause?

    • Milankovitch Cycles –


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Eccentricity

Milankovitch Cycles –

Precession

(wobble)

Tilt


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Milankovitch Cycles

1) Eccentricity –


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Milankovitch Cycles

2) Precession (wobble) –


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Milankovitch Cycles

  • Obliquity

    “tilt”–


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VII.Ice Ages

  • Global cooling may produce glaciers


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Milankovitch Cycles

  • Individual cycles vs. multiple cycles



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400,000 years of change

Note how climate slowly cools going into a glacial period.

Then rapidly warms at the end. But quickly starts cooling again.


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The Pleistocene Ice Age

  • Four major glacial advances over past 1.8 million years

  • Area covered?

  • Results?


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The Pleistocene Ice Age

  • Global sea level drop



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