Chapter 1 the mission and the method
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Chapter 1 - The Mission and the Method. A Brief History of Social Psychology What Do Social Psychologists Do? Social Psychology’s Place in the World Why People Study Social Psychology How Do Social Psychologists Answer Their Own Questions? How Much of Social Psychology is True?.

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Chapter 1 - The Mission and the Method

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Chapter 1 the mission and the method

Chapter 1 - The Mission and the Method

  • A Brief History of Social Psychology

  • What Do Social Psychologists Do?

  • Social Psychology’s Place in the World

  • Why People Study Social Psychology

  • How Do Social Psychologists Answer Their Own Questions?

  • How Much of Social Psychology is True?


A brief history of social psychology

A Brief History of Social Psychology

  • Earliest Social Psychology Experiments

    • Norman Triplett, 1897-1898

    • Max Ringelmann, 1880s

  • Introduction of Textbooks -1908

    • Edward Ross (sociologist)

    • William McDougall (psychologist)


A brief history of social psychology1

A Brief History of Social Psychology

  • Influences in Early 20th Century

    • Gordon Allport

    • Kurt Lewin

  • Influences in 1950s and 1960s

    • Behaviorism

    • Freudian psychoanalysis

  • Social Psychology as a Science


What do social psychologists do

What Do Social Psychologists Do?

  • Broad understanding of how human beings think, act, and feel and the interactions between thinking, acting and feeling

  • ABC Triad

  • Personal and Situational Influences on ABC

  • Use of the Scientific Method


Social psychology s place in the world

Social Psychology’s Place in the World

  • Within the Social Sciences

    • Anthropology

    • Economics

    • History

    • Political Science

    • Sociology

    • Psychology


Social psychology s place in the world1

Social Psychology’s Place in the World

  • Within Psychology

    • Biological Psychology

    • Clinical Psychology

    • Cognitive Psychology

    • Developmental Psychology

    • Personality Psychology

    • Social Psychology


Important lessons of social psy

Important Lessons of Social Psy

  • Power of Situation

  • Construct Social Reality

  • Social Intuitions

  • Outside our Awareness

  • Attitudes and Dispositions

  • Application


Research vs common sense

Research vs. Common Sense

  • Common Sense

    • Adages are often contradictory

    • Poor method of discovering the truth

    • May be a starting point for questions


Scientific method

Scientific Method

  • State problem – Theory

  • Formulate testable hypothesis

  • Design study and collect data

  • Test the hypothesis with the data

  • Communicate study results


Experimental research designs

Experimental Research Designs

  • Experiment

    • Researcher controls procedures

    • Participants are randomly assigned into Experimental and Control Groups

    • Allows for statements of cause and effect

  • Quasi-experiment

    • No random assignment


Variables independent and dependent

Variables: Independent and Dependent

  • Independent variable

    • The “cause”

    • Manipulated by the experimenter

  • Dependent variable

    • The “effect”

    • Measure as an outcome


Variables

Variables

  • Operational Definition

    • Does our measure represent the variable?

  • Construct validity of the Variables

    • A construct is a abstract, theoretical concept

    • Does it represent the real variable?


Research concerns

Research Concerns

  • Extraneous Variables

    • Other variables that can influence outcome

    • Confounded – effects of variables cannot be separated.

  • Internal Validity

    • Did Independent Variable cause change?

  • External Validity

    • Are these results applicable/generalizable?


Experimental research designs1

Experimental Research Designs

  • Quasi-experiment

    • No random assignment

    • Other characteristics of study are similar


Laboratory and field experiments

Laboratory and Field Experiments

  • Laboratory Experiments

    • Experimental realism

    • Mundane realism

  • Field Experiments

  • External validity is

    • Findings can be generalized


Nonexperimental studies

Nonexperimental Studies

  • Correlational Approach

    • Variables are not controlled

    • No random assignment

  • Correlation

    • Relationship between two variables

    • Correlation coefficient

  • Weakness – does not prove causation


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