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The Incredible Foresight of ETTORE MAJORANA Haim Harari Erice, September 1, 2006. Neutrino Masses, Leptogenesis and Beyond. The Foresight. Can you tell a neutrino from an anti-neutrino ?. MAJORANA. n may be its own antiparticle !. Is n Massless or Very Light ?.

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The Incredible Foresight of

ETTORE MAJORANA

Haim Harari

Erice, September 1, 2006

Neutrino Masses, Leptogenesis and Beyond


The Foresight

Can you tell a

neutrinofrom an anti-neutrino?

MAJORANA

n may be its own antiparticle !


Is nMassless or Very Light?

“Direct” experiments m (ne) < few eV

Theory

No good reason for massless n.

Simple argument for very light n.

n is the only “chargeless” particle.

All quarks and leptons  “Dirac Mass”

n also “Majorana Mass”


0

m

m

L

Is nMassless or Very Light?

M1 ~ O(L)

M2 ~ O(m2/L)

“See-Saw”

L

m

n

Majorana

Mass

Gell-Mann, Ramond, Slansky, Yanagida


Solar Neutrinos

The sun emits 1038n per second.

1029 go to direction earth.

Per 100 ton detector - 40 hits per month

Homestake

n + Cl37 e +A37

400 ton C2Cl4

Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein


Kamiokande Super - Kamiokande

Kamiokande

n+ n e + p

50,000 ton/clean water


GALLEX

n + Ga71e +Ge71

30 ton


GALLEX

n + Ga71e +Ge71

30 ton

SNO

1000 ton D2O (+2 ton Salt) 10,000 phototubes

ne + d e + p + p (charged Current)

nx + dnx + p + n (Neutral Current)

nx + e nx +e (Elastic Scattering)

Count total n – flux and ne - flux


Solar Model is Right!

Neutrinos Oscillate

Neutrinos have Mass

m(nm) ~ 8 meV

q12Large


Kamland – Japan

R

R

KAM

R

R

L ~ 180 km

E ~ O (MeV)

Probe: ∆m2<<eV2


KAMIOKANDE:

N(nm)

N(ne)

= 1.2 !!!

m(nt) ~ 50 meV

Cosmic Radiation

Energetic protons arrive

p

Pions created in atmosphere

In p-decay:N(nm)

N(ne)

atmosphere

p

= 2

m

e

ne

nm

nm

earth


The Universe

70% Dark Energy

25% Dark Matter

4% H, He

0.5% Heavy Nuclei

0.5% Neutrinos

m(nt) ~ 50 meV

m(nm) ~ 8 meV

m(ne) ~ smaller

Large angles!

Also K2K, MINOS,others


meV

meV

eV

keV

MeV

GeV

TeV

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

2nd

3rd

Generation

1st

Q

c

u

t

2/3

s

d

b

-1/3

Quarks

ne?

nm?

nt?

0

m

t

e

-1

Leptons

(

)

(

)

(

)

u

d

c

s

t

b

“The Standard Model”

(

)

(

)

(

)

ne

e

nm

m

nt

t


meV

meV

eV

keV

MeV

GeV

TeV

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

2nd

3rd

Generation

1st

Q

c

u

t

2/3

s

d

b

-1/3

Quarks

nt

nm

ne?

0

t

e

m

-1

Leptons

(

)

(

)

(

)

u

d

c

s

t

b

“The Standard Model”

(

)

(

)

(

)

ne

e

nm

m

nt

t


Why are we here?

B-Violation (also L-Violation)

CP-Violation

Non-equilibrium (also no “wash-out”)

Sakharov-1967

B-Violation (and L-Violation)

p-decay

GUT scale or higher

Not seen (but SN87A!)

n-oscillations and mass

CP-Violation

KM phase for quarks (requires 3 generations)

CP-violation in leptons (requires 2 generations)

WHEN AND HOW DID IT HAPPEN?


Why are we here?

At Big Bang: B=0 , L=0 (also B-L=0)

We need to create a nonzeroB (also B-L?)

“Leptogenesis”(other theories: GUT, electroweak) :

If we could create a nonzero L

and then trade B for L,

we could create a positive B.

IT IS NOT ENOUGH TO TRADE B for L

WE MUST ALSO CREATE B-L


B – L is conserved (and must be nonzero)

B + L is violatede.g. D(B + L) = 6 is allowed

B and L violation in the standard model (but no B-L)

(qiqjqk) (qiqjqk) (qiqjqk) (ℓiℓjℓk)

“instanton” terms:

i,j,k = generations

“SPHALERON”: Connecting degenerate ground states

L and B can change (together)

each by 3 UNITS (for Ng =3)

THE STANDARD MODEL CREATES (together) B AND L


  • Note:

  • ↔ n

    is possible

u

d

d

u

n

e-

Neutrino oscillations  m(n) ≠ 0, very small

m2

M

0 m

m M

Seesaw mechanism:

m(n) ~

Hence: n is a Majorana neutrino

<nn> ≠ 0, n-nmixing, heavy neutrino with mass M

L=0 AT BIG BANG

BUT DL ≠ 0 PROCESSES ARE ABUNDANT !

The universe is made of

QUARKS and LEPTONS

e+

n


The particle, which is its own antiparticle,

is responsible for having

more particles than antiparticles in the universe

LEPTOGENESIS

At BigBang: B = L = 0.

Majorana: DL≠0 and D(B-L)≠0are allowed.

Hence, the universe has L≠0 and B-L≠ 0 .

LEADING TO B≠0 !!!

(Elaborate quantitative estimates).

e.g. Buchmueller-Peccei-Yanagida

NEUTRINO

COGITO

ERGO SUM


And in 2056 – for Majorana’s 150th birthday

.

Perhaps it all happens

at the subparticle level !?

Warning

No evidence for

subquarks and subleptons.

No reasonable dynamical theory


Why q and ℓhave simple charge ratios?

( +2/3, -1/3 )

(0, -1)

The Quark - Lepton Connection

Why p and e+ have same charge?

Why SQi = 0 for q’s and ℓ’s in one generation?

[ SQi = (-1) + (0) + 3(+2/3) +3(-1/3) = 0 ]

Why three colors and three generations?

PREONS?

TOY MODELS?


Q

SU(3)

SU(3)

N

N

3(B-L)

V

H

T

C

T

3

3

1

0

1

+ 1/3

V

0

3

3

0

1

-1

V

0

3

3

0

-1

1

- 1/3

T

3

3

-1

0

-1

color

color

n

d

u

e-

VVV

VVT

VTT

TTT

(0)

(- 1/3)

(- 2/3)

(-1)

1

3

3

1

e+

u

d

n

TTT

TTV

TVV

VVV

(+1)

(+2/3)

(+1/3)

(0)

1

3

3

1

“Antimatter”

“Matter”

e- TTT

e+ TTT

p TTT(TT)(VV)(VV)

p TTT(TT)(VV)(VV)

HH+Seiberg

Rishons

SU(3)H

Singlets

Anomaly cancellation: NH = NC = NG = 3

Buchmann+Schmid


HH+Seiberg

Q

SU(3)

SU(3)

N

N

3(B-L)

V

H

T

C

T

3

3

1

0

1

+ 1/3

V

0

3

3

0

1

-1

V

0

3

3

0

-1

1

- 1/3

T

3

3

-1

0

-1

color

color

n

d

u

e-

VVV

VVT

VTT

TTT

(0)

(- 1/3)

(- 2/3)

(-1)

1

3

3

1

e+

u

d

n

TTT

TTV

TVV

VVV

(+1)

(+2/3)

(+1/3)

(0)

1

3

3

1

“Antimatter”

“Matter”

Rishons

SU(3)H

Singlets

TO BREAK B-L WE NEED TO BREAK N

Simplest J=0, Q=0, SU(3)H – singlet, SU(3)C – singlet

IS <VVVVVV> : BREAKS L, HENCE CREATES B

V

<VVVVVV>≠0 ERGO SUM


Measuring Masses and Angles

Clues for Theory “Beyond the Standard Model”

Neutrino Astronomy

UHE Cosmic Neutrinos

Dark Matter

Z nn

nin Nucleosynthesis

- Less Double-Decay

n- Decays

n -Magnetic Moments

Heavy n

Sterile n


ETTORE MAJORANA

WAS NO FOOL

WAS BRILLIANT !!!

Neutrino Masses, Leptogenesis and Beyond


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