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Hydrilla verticillata ( L.f .) Royle. Presented by Garrett Noles. Common Names + Synonyms. Common- Hydrilla , water thyme, Florida elodea

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hydrilla verticillata l f royle

Hydrillaverticillata (L.f.) Royle

Presented by

Garrett Noles

common names synonyms
Common Names + Synonyms
  • Common- Hydrilla, water thyme, Florida elodea
  • Latin binomials- Hottoniaserrata, Hydrillaangustifolia, Hydrillaovalifolia, Leptanthesverticillata, Serpiculaverticillata, Elodea verticillata

Photo by USDA/ARS

www.cal-ipc.org

taxonomy
Taxonomy
  • Family- Hydrocharitaceae (Tape-grass family)
  • Reproduction- Mainly vegetative propagation
  • Dioecious (mostly in US) & rarely monoecious
  • Morphology- Stems: long and slender, white in color
  • Leaves- dark green, strap shaped, saw-toothed margins
  • Grow in dense clusters, branching towards surface of water

www.cal-ipc.org

turions
Turions
  • Turions- “dark green buds on some leaf axils”
  • Subterranean turions- yellow tuber like buds attached to root folicles

plants.ifas.ufl.edu

ecological impacts
Ecological Impacts
  • Can outcompete other desirable aquatic plants
  • Can slow water flow thus increase water temperature
  • Can use the oxygen resources in a water body
  • Some evidence of allelopathy discouraging plant biodiversity (if interested view starred paper)
  • Can alter important freshwater fish habitat
economic impacts
Economic Impacts
  • Can reduce water recreation
  • Turions and fragments can clog irrigation canals
  • Can reduce hydropower productivity
  • Mechanical and chemical treatments can add up over a period of time to be costly
biological control
Biological Control
  • Hydrilla leaf-mining fly and hydrilla tuber weevil
  • Both found in India mid 80’s
  • Are major species specific predators for Hydrilla

plants.ifas.ufl.edu

insect herbivory effects
Insect Herbivory Effects
  • 14,000 L tanks
  • Each divided into 32 sections
  • Competition tests and herbivory tests in different tanks
  • Concluded that combo of bio controls are most effective

Doyle et.al. 2007

bio control cont
Bio Control Cont.
  • Another biological enemy to hydrilla from Asia
  • Grow fast, and consume tubers/turions!
  • However, grass carp are not species specific foragers

Ctenopharyngodonidella (Grass Carp)

www.ecy.wa.gov

effectiveness of grass carp
Effectiveness of Grass Carp
  • Consume large amounts until they reach maximum size
  • Smaller fish consume more vegetation
  • Once size limit is reached, no longer a great control agent

Osborne 1981

chemical controls
Chemical Controls
  • Endothall (Aquathol K)
  • Can be used selectively
  • Kills vegetation, not tubers
  • Diquat (Reward)
  • Is effected by water solids(silt)
  • Usually used for one season
  • Reward prices vary, check local provider ($130-150/gallon)
  • Aquathol powder form prices also vary ( $240-260/10 lbs)
  • Aquathol liquid form ($240-260/ 2.5 gallons)

www.ecy.wa.gov

work cited
Work Cited
  • California Invasive Plant Council (2010)Cal-IPC Resources on Hydrillaverticillata. http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/management/plant_profiles/Hydrilla_verticillata.php, April 18, 2010.
  • Doyle R, Grodowitz M, Smart M, Owens C (2007) Separate and interactive effects of competition and herbivory on the growth, expansion, and tuber formation of Hydrillaverticillata. Biological Control 41: 327-338.
  • Kulshreshtha M, Gopal B (1983) Allelopathic influence of Hydrillaverticillata on the distribution of Ceratophyllum species. Aquatic Botany 16: 207-209. *
  • Osborne JA, Sassic NM (1981) The size of grass carp as a factor in the control of Hydrilla. Aquatic Botany 11: 129-136.
  • University of Florida IFAS (2009) Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/node/183, April 17, 2010
  • USDA, ARS. 2010. The Agriculture Research Service Database (http://www.ars.usda.gov, 21 April 2010). ARS Headquarters, Washington DC, 20250.
work cited cont
Work Cited Cont.
  • USDA, NRCS. 2010. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 21 April 2010). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
  • Washington State Department of Ecology (2010) Aquatic Plant Management- Aquatic Herbicides. http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/plants/management/aqua028.html, April 16, 2010.
  • Washington State Department of Ecology (2010) Aquatic Plant Management- Triploid Grass Carp. http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/plants/management/aqua024.html, April 17, 2010.