Early late paleozoic geology
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Early/late Paleozoic Geology. Chapter 10 and 11. Last time. Phanerozoic Eon Paleozoic Era Cambrian Ordovician Silurian. Last time. Sequences. Regression should have shale and sandstone as last rocks deposited. Where is the sandstone and shale on top in Sauk and Tippecanoe Sequences?.

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Early late paleozoic geology l.jpg

Early/late Paleozoic Geology

Chapter 10 and 11


Last time l.jpg
Last time

  • Phanerozoic Eon

  • Paleozoic Era

    • Cambrian

    • Ordovician

    • Silurian


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Last time

  • Sequences


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Regression should have shale and sandstone as last rocks deposited.

Where is the sandstone and shale on top in Sauk and Tippecanoe Sequences?

Order of rock types

Limestone

Shale

Sandstone


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North American craton deposited.

  • Appalachian mobile belt


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Rocks of the Appalachian mobile belt deposited.

mid to end of

Ordovician

Volcanic ash in shales

Shales, no mud cracks,

no stromatolites

mid-Ordovician-

Silurian

Cambrian-

Early Ordovician

Sandstone, stromatolites,

Mud cracks, cross bedding


Appalachian mobile belt in cambrian l.jpg
Appalachian mobile belt in Cambrian deposited.

  • Passive margin and shallow water


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Appalachian mobile belt in Cambrian and Early Ordovician deposited.

  • Laurentia is still passive margin

  • Iapetus ocean opens w/ divergent margin


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Appalachian mobile belt in middle Ordovician-Silurian deposited.

  • Deeper water deposition (Tippecanoe Sequence)


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Middle Ordovician deposited.

  • Iapetus plate subducts under Laurentia

  • Volcanoes form

  • Onset of mountains

  • Taconic orogeny

  • Forms Taconic highlands

  • New York, Mass., Vt.


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How to date Taconic orogeny deposited.

  • Volcanic ash layers

  • Intrusive igneous rocks

  • 440-480 m.y.


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Evidence of Taconic orogen deposited.

  • What happens with formation of new mountains (highlands?)

  • Accumulation of detrital sediment

  • Thickest near mountains (source area)

  • Thinner, small particles away from source

  • Queenston Delta


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Evidence of Taconic orogen deposited.

  • What happens with formation of new mountains (highlands?)

  • Accumulation of detrital sediment

  • Thickest near mountains (source area)

  • Thinner, small particles away from source

  • Queenston Delta


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Early Paleozoic geology deposited.

  • Sauk and Tippecanoe sequences

  • Taconic orogeny


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Late Paleozoic deposited.

  • Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian


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Late Paleozoic sed rocks deposited.

oldest

  • Tippecanoe sequence (ends early Devonian)

  • Unconformity/ erosion

  • Middle Devonian: transgression

youngest


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Late Paleozoic sed rocks deposited.

  • Kaskaskia sequence

  • What rock is deposited first?

  • New York, Penn.


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Devonian Geography deposited.

  • Above sandstone:

    • Shales, limestones/ evaporites


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Kaskaskia sed. rocks deposited.

  • Devonian reefs of western Canada

  • Barrier reefs, evaporite basins

  • Sound familiar?


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New rock type in Kaskaskia: black shales deposited.

  • Black since organic-rich

  • Need:

    • High organic activity

    • Low oxygen water


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New rock type in Kaskaskia: black shales deposited.

  • Black since organic-rich

  • Need:

    • High organic activity

    • Low oxygen water


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End of Kaskaskia sequence deposited.

  • Return to limestones in Mississippian

  • Fossils of reefs!


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End of Kaskaskia sequence deposited.

  • Return to limestones in Mississippian

  • Fossils of reefs!


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Late Kaskaskia deposited.

  • Return to limestones in Mississippian

  • Fossils of reefs!


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Indiana deposited.

Mississippian limestone

Grand Canyon


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Famous Mississippian limestone deposited.

  • Indiana limestone

  • Empire mine


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Pennsylvanian deposited.

  • Late Mississippian: Kaskaskia Sea regression

  • Unconformity divides Mississippian & Pennsylvanian

  • Sea returns with Absaroka sequence


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New to Absaroka sequence deposited.

  • Sequence of marine/nonmarine rocks

  • What kind of sed. environment can we form these rocks?

  • Called cyclothems


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Complete cyclothem deposited.

  • Cyclothems contain coal

  • Coal is dead plants


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Cyclothems & coal deposited.

  • Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia


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Pennsylvanian coal swamps deposited.

  • How such widespread “delta” environments?

  • How could sea level change over such large area?

  • Glaciers in Gondwana


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End of Absaroka sequence deposited.

  • Permian

  • Lots of limestone!

  • West Texas


Sed sequences of n america l.jpg

Sandstone deposited.

Limestone of

Mississippian

Black Shale

Limestone

& evaporites

Sandstone

Kaskaskia Sequence

Sed. Sequences of N. America

Limestone

Coal

Sandstone

Absaroka

Sequence


Sed sequences of n america34 l.jpg
Sed. Sequences of N. America deposited.

Limestone

with evaporites

Limestone

Shale

Shale

Sandstone

Sandstone

Tippecanoe

Sequence

Sauk

Sequence


Late paleozoic sed rock summary l.jpg
Late Paleozoic sed rock summary deposited.

  • Kaskaskia: sandstone, limestone, black shale, limestone

  • Absaroka: sandstone, coal swamps, evaporites & limestones


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