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Definition of Terms.  Second Language Acquisition  Bilingual Language Acquisition. Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language , 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, p. 357. Questions about Bilingualism. 1. Doesn’t the child confuse the two

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Definition of terms
Definition of Terms

 Second Language Acquisition

 Bilingual Language Acquisition

Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, p. 357.


Questions about bilingualism
Questions about Bilingualism

1. Doesn’t the child confuse the two

languages?

2. Does bilingual language development take

longer than monolingual development?

3. Are bilingual children brighter or does

acquiring two languages negatively affect the child’s cognitive development in some way?

4. How much exposure to each language is

necessary for a child to become bilingual?

Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, p. 358.


One system or two
One System or Two?

One

 Mixed vocabulary

 Complementary vocabulary

Two

 Overlapping vocabulary

 Different syntax requirements

 Different morphology requirements

 Distinct phonemes and phonological rules

Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, pp. 358-359.


How much input is needed
How much input is needed?

“For practical purposes, the rule of thumb is that the child should receive roughly equal amounts of input in the two languages to achieve native proficiency in both.”

Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, pp. 360-361.


Cognitive effects of bilingualism
Cognitive Effects of Bilingualism

Early studies:

 Worse: IQ, other cognitive / educational tests

More recent studies:

 Better in certain problem solving tasks

 Better metalinguistic knowledge

 Understand better about arbitrariness of

object / name relations

 Know what context to use which language in

Benefits depend on value of two languages in society.

Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, p. 361.


Sla and fla similarities and differences
SLA and FLA Similarities and Differences

Similarities

 Develops in stages

 UG may be available to some extent

Differences

 Ultimate proficiency not the same

 Greater non-linguistic cognitive abilities

 UG not available to same extent (??)

Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, pp. 361-363.


Second language acquisition
Second Language Acquisition

“The younger you are, the easier it seems to be to learn a language. Language is unique in that no other complex system of knowledge is more easily acquired at a younger age than at an older one.”

Fromkin, Victoria and Robert Rodman. An Introduction to Language, sixth edition. Forth Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1998, p. 347.


Chapter 7 homework exercise 8 pp 371 372
Chapter 7 Homework(Exercise 8, pp. 371-372)

a. 1;6:

 Final voiced stop consonants deleted

 Final voiced sibilants are devoiced

 (dish unique)

2;0:

 Final voiced stops are devoiced (or for

[ d ] deleted)

 Final voiced sibilants are devoiced

Both voiced stops and voiced sibilants are natural classes.

b. NO minimal pairs, BUT some sounds in similar contexts


Chapter 7 homework exercise 11 p 372
Chapter 7 Homework(Exercise 11, p. 372)

a. Egyptian Arabic: Insert [ i ] AFTER first consonant of consonant cluster at the beginning a syllable

b. Iraqi Arabic: Insert [ i ] BEFORE first consonant of consonant cluster at the beginning a syllable

c. Egyptian: Arabic B

Iraqi: Arabic A


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