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CRUS Changing Research Careers University of Zurich 2-3 November 2011 Researchers Careers A key Investment for Societies Marja Makarow European Science Foundation. Table of Content. Place of universities in knowledge society Categories of research - Nobel and Pasteur quadrants

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Crus changing research careers university of zurich 2 3 november 2011 researchers careers

CRUS

Changing Research Careers

University of Zurich

2-3 November 2011

Researchers Careers

A key Investment for Societies

Marja Makarow

European Science Foundation


Table of content

Table of Content

  • Place of universities in knowledge society

  • Categories of research - Nobel and Pasteur quadrants

  • How to reach Nobel quadrant

  • Four-stage career structure

    1. PhD candidate

    2. Post-doctoral researcher

    3. Independent young researcher

    4. Professor

  • Tenure track pilots

  • LERU and ESF recommendations on research careers

  • Pasteur quadrant – excellence and relevance combined

  • Message to decision-makers


Place of research universities in the knowledge society

Place of research universities in the knowledge society

In Europe and beyond, governments have realised

  • Education, research, innovation are cornerstones of knowledge-based societies/economies

  • Knowledge is the building block of economic , cultural and societal well-being of humanity,

    invaluable commodity and raw material for business and economic growth in absence of endless natural resources

  • Disruptive innovations mostly sparkle from fundamental research > innovation chain starts at universities

  • This is why university systems under renovation

  • 3rd task, benefitting society, added to universities’ legal obligations, ill-defined or clearly economic impact


Four categories of research pasteur quadrant

Four categories of research”Pasteur quadrant”

Excellent basic research New innovations from

new knowledge

Nobel laureates Louis Pasteur

Advancement of knowledge Excellence + relevance

Basis for new inventions New business and

Slow driver of innovation economic growth

Redundant research Development

Vast majority of researchers Edison

> expensive

Process > educated citizens Incremental progress

Broad base for emerging Based on others’ findings excellence Essential for industry

Quality

Utility


Renovation of universities aim at increasing population in pasteur quadrant

Renovation of universities aim at increasing population in Pasteur quadrant

  • In > half of EU MSs university Acts renovated:

    To increase autonomy: governance, rector’s powers, finance, structure, buildings, civ serv

    Coupled with accountability

    Push to develop long-term strategies

    Define profile according to strengths, potential

    Opportunities to update research career structure

  • New incentives for development of long-term strategy

    Excellence Initiative DE, doctoral schools attached

    Governmental loan FR, uni career str under eval

    Governmental investment into foundations (FI)

    revision of uni career str recommende

  • Interaction with other organisations in research system: Research institutes and private sector

    Works best if career opportunities for mobility in both directions


How to reach the nobel quadrant first to increase quality of research

How to reach the Nobel quadrantfirst, to increase quality of research

  • All depends on individuals, excellent individual researchers

  • To prosper, individual talent needs

    Supportive environment

    Thriving university with creative research environments

    Vision for the future, an attractive transparent career structure


How to reach nobel quadrant 1 requirements for universities an excellent res uni has

How to reach Nobel quadrant 1. Requirements for universitiesAn excellent res uni has

  • Clearly defined mission based on international research agenda or national/regional agenda

  • Capacity to reconfigure in response to novel research challenges

  • Structures to support research focus and cross-disciplinary research

  • Autonomy and resources to focus on strengths and promote young researchers’ emerging excellence and attraction to science with attractive career stages

  • State-of-the-art research infrastructure

  • International researcher community that imports and exports new knowledge, new ideas, new technologies

  • Mechanisms to use research strengths to inspire teaching, which again funnels new talent to research


Nobel quadrant remains empty without focus on young researchers careers

Nobel quadrant remains empty without focus on young researchers careers

  • Next generation is most important long-term investment

  • Market for researchers global, competition for the best is global

  • Four-stage research career structure proposed,

    in order to meet the new generations needs, by:

    1. LERU League of European Research Universities (20 top universities, including University of Zurich and University of Geneva)

    2. ESF Member Organisation Forum on Researcher Careers

    29 research funding and performing organisation covering 21 countries including SNFS and Swisscore. Report 2009 “Research Careers in Europe - Landscape and Horizons”

    3. National bodies


Four stage career structure with variations

Four-stage career structurewith variations

  • Stage 1: PhD candidate

    If we fail in attracting the best to do PhD, the rest is futile

    Alarming signs of decrease in interest in some countries

  • Stage 2: Post-doctoral researcher

    Decisions taken whether to leave researcher career

    Choice of subject, place, mobility, crucial for later success

  • Stage 3: Young Independent Researcher

    Investments in stages 1 and 2 waisted if the best have no access to career ladder

  • Stage 4: Professor

  • Nterest in


Stage 1 phd candidate

Stage 1PhD candidate

Bologna definitions of 3rd cycle harmonised status and requirements, still too much diversity

EC analysed 37 countries and ESF 8 countries, differencies in

  • Taxonomy (PhD candidate, Teach/Res Assistant, early stage res…)

  • Job status, e.g. student or researcher or junior teacher

  • Salary or stipend, social security or not

  • Criteria and procedures of selection, if any

  • Requirements of volume of research, publications for PhD thesis

  • Time-to-degree target 3-4 y, or none

  • Training requirements, ECTS points on none (mostly)

  • Transferable skills training or none

  • Supervisor’s role defined or not

  • Solo work or group or researchers community

  • International experience required or not


Crus changing research careers university of zurich 2 3 november 2011 researchers careers

LERU theses on doctoral trainingHigh quality doctoral training is an imperative for knowledge society

  • Doctoral training to be integrated in university’s research strategy

  • Doctoral programmes offer better conditions than solo work

  • Doctoral programmes can be realised within one university, or as regional, national or international networks (small countries, orchid subjects)

  • International mobility increases quality, provides access to infrastructure

  • Industry-academia collaboration in PhD training promotes innovation

  • Examples of such good practices realised by a number of LERU universities and described in 2007 document


Finland has pioneered nationwide structured doctoral training

Finland has pioneered nationwide structured doctoral training

  • Ministry of Education established Doctoral schools/programs in 1995

  • Covers all 16 universities, all research disciplines, now 120

  • Thematic program gets Doctoral School status for 4 years via competition, status renewable

  • Top scientists submit proposals with training programs in substance issues, methodologies, transferable skills, with teaching/funding partners, intl partners, and propose best practices promoting quality supervision and research, and career support beyond PhD degree

  • Evaluated by Research Councils

  • Ministry of Education allocates 4-y salaries with full social security to PhD candidates of chosen schools, annually 50 ME for 1600 salaries corresponds to ¼ of all PhD candidates

  • Once a year competitive funds for training programmes


Successes and challenges of the finnish doctoral programme

Successes and challenges of the Finnish Doctoral programme

Successes

  • Proven to be best environment to train professional researchers

  • Has changes research culture in Humanities from solo research to a research-community environment

  • Has raised the quality of supervision

  • Has decreased the time-to-degree and age at dissertation

  • Best researchers are leading the programs

    Challenges

  • Not integrated in most universities’ strategies as funds come outside from the university’s budget

  • Two classes of PhD candidates:

    A class is in schools and even earns a decent salary

    B class outside of programmes, no access to quality courses, transferabe skills training, at mercy of supervisor


Stage 2 post doctoral researcher

Stage 2Post-doctoral researcher

  • working pretty well, I will not dwell on this stage except for a few comments

  • Success in post-doc determines your career, choose well

  • Especially in small countries, post-doc abroad is essential

  • Changing subject very good and should be encouraged

  • PhDS to be mentored and advised

  • Natl and intl funding schemes available

  • Problem when getting to next stage does not succeed

  • Multiple post-doc periods, over 5 years, and you are lost


Stage 3 young career age independent researcher

Stage 3. Young (career age) independent researcher

  • Most European universities lack posts for young PIs: researchers careers unclear, not attached to success, not attractive to new generation

  • Case FI: Academy researcher for 5 years, no positions thereafter unless successful in professorship competition

    International researchers do not trust the system

  • ERC portable Starting Grants are shaking the system

    Universities starting to think of career track after ERC

  • Young ERC grantees should be taken well care of, mentored, Nobel prizes accumulate - culture of excellence and mentoring

  • f


Is tenure track solution for young pis aalto university 2010

Is tenure-track solution for young Pis?Aalto University, 2010

Science & Technology 1849

Art & Design

1871

Economics

1911


Tenure track structure for all professor recruitments

Tenure track structureFor all professor recruitments


First experiences international attraction

First experiences - international attraction

  • First tenure track positions allocated to Departments according to their success in Research Assessment Exercise in 2010

  • Case: Department of Computer and Information Science

  • Earlier 20 applicants per post, all Finnish

  • First Assistant Professor call with tenure track

    158 applicants

    Finland 49

    North America 30

    DACH 24

    UK 14

    Other countries 26

    Still only 10 percent female


Pros and cons of tenure track system

Pros and cons of tenure track system

  • Traditional recruitment of professor

    Scientific sub-discipline of post predefined

    Hopefully best candidate selected

    Even if absolute quality of individual not high

  • Tenure track recruitment

    Best candidate in pre-defined broad domain selected

    Selected individual defines the disciplinary domain of the post till retirement

    Positions locked for tens of years

  • Crucial for university to

    Understand conceptual difference

    Base recruitments on solid long-term research strategy

  • ETH Zurich started tenure track piloting in 2004 – experiences?

  • f


Leru and esf member organisation forum recommendations

LERU and ESF Member Organisation Forum recommendations

  • Promote common principles on research employment. Develop

    shared code of practice/Researchers’ Handbook, responding to European Code and Charter

  • Structure career pathway with well-defined posts, provide transparency in career structures and recruitment

  • Improve career development support in universities, also for diverse career pathways

  • Establish knowledge-base on careers, to share information and statistics on career pathways (EUA mapping and sharing good practices)

  • Career pathway is shared responsibility, uni, government, public and private funders of research


From nobel quadrant to pasteur quadrant

From Nobel quadrant to Pasteur quadrant

Excellent basic research New innovations from

new knowledge

Nobel laureates Louis Pasteur

Advancement of knowledge Excellence + relevance

Basis for new inventions New business and

Slow driver of innovation economic growth

Redundant research Development

Vast majority of researchers Edison

> expensive

Process > educated citizens Incremental progress

Broad base for emerging Based on others’ findings excellence Essential for industry

Quality

Utility


Lessons learnt from millennium technology prize

Lessons learnt from Millennium Technology Prize

One of the most prestigeous technology prizes, funded by industry and State of Finland

For ground-breaking technologies, which change the world, increase the quality of life of mankind and have proven theirutility and commercialvalue

2004 Tim Berners-Lee: world-wide-web

2006 Suji Nakamura: LEDs and blue laser

2008 Robert Langer: controlled drug release

2010 Michael Graetzel: dye-sensitised solar cells

Inventionsfromfreebasicresearch, notprograms

Inventorsdrivebasic and appliedresearch in parallel, bothstreamsfertilizingeachother


Support to move to pasteur quadrant open innovation

Support to move to Pasteur QuadrantOpen innovation

Joint research agendas for academic and industry researchers, combining curiosity-driven and problem-oriented research

Strategic alliences, or flexible institutes between university and industry

Posts for intersectorial mobility needed in academia plus industry, academic and corporate researchers’ merits to be mutually acknowledged

Doctoral training to support career opportunities in industry

Ind-aca culture best learnt in joint doctoral programs


Message to decision makers do not add knowledge crisis to financial crisis

Message to decision-makers:Do not add knowledge crisis to financial crisis

Disruptive innovations that change the world mostly sparkle from blue sky research

Disruptive innovations that have created new business sectors are traceble to discoveries in fundamental science, unpredictable by definition

No free research>no advances in knowledge>no disruptive technologies>no economic growth

Thus, implement science policy that combines researchers’ creativity with broad definition of priorities, foster ind-aca collaboration

Safe-guard resources for free research and provide researchers careers that are attractive to the best


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